Kakaisaran Byzantin

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Kakaisaran Bizantium utawa Kakaisaran Romawi Timur (ejaan liya: Bizantin, Byzantin, Byzantine) iku wilayah wétan Kakaisaran Romawi sing wicara nganggo abasa Yunani[1] ing Abad Kuna lan Tengahan. Pedunung lan tangga-teparo Kakaisaran Bizantium njuluki negri iki Kakaisaran Romawi utawa Romania (Yunani: Ῥωμανία, Rhōmanía).

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Millar 2006; James 2010, p. 5: "But from the start, there were two major differences between the Roman and Byzantine empires: Byzantium was for much of its life a Greek speaking empire oriented towards Greek, not Latin culture; and it was a Christian empire."

Wacan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ahrweiler, Helene (2000). Les Europeens. Paris: Herman.
  • Haldon, John (2001). The Byzantine Wars: Battles and Campaigns of the Byzantine Era. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0752417959.
  • Hussey, J. M. (1966). The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV — The Byzantine Empire Part I, Byzantium and its Neighbors. Cambridge University Press.
  • Runciman, Steven (1966). Byzantine Civilisation. Edward Arnold (Publishers). ISBN 1566195748.
  • Runciman, Steven (1990). The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his Reign. University Press (Cambridge). ISBN 0521061644.
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. (1972). Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019215253X. ISBN 0-19-215253-X.

Pranala njaba[sunting | sunting sumber]

Studi, sumber, dan bibliografi Bizantium[sunting | sunting sumber]

Liya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cithakan:Kakaisaran