Kortisol

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Kortisol.jpg
Kortisol
Jeneng sistematis (IUPAC)
(11β)-​11,​17,​21-​trihydroxypregn-​4-​ene-​3,​20-​dione
Data klinis
Kat. kehamilan C
Status hukum Rx Only (U.S.) (excluding 1-2% strength topical)
Rute Oral tablets, intravenously, topical
Pangenal
Nomor CAS 50-23-7
Kode ATC H02AB09 (and others)
PubChem CID 5754
ChemSpider 5551Cithakan:Chemspidercite
UNII WI4X0X7BPJCithakan:Fdacite
KEGG D00088Cithakan:Keggcite
ChEMBL CHEMBL389621 Cithakan:Tick
Data kimia
Formula C21H30O5 
Massa mol. 362.460
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem

Kortisol (Inggris: cortisol, hydrocortisone, 11beta,17alpha,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione) ya iku hormon steroid saka golongan glukokortikoid kang lumrahé diprodhuksi déning sèl ing jero zona fasikulata ing kelenjar adrenal[1] minangka respon tumprap stimulasi hormon ACTH kang disekresi déning kelenjar hipofisis, uga arupa hasil reaksi organik hidrogenasi ing gugus 11-keto[2] molekul hormon kortison kang dikatalis déning enzim 11β-hidroksisteroid dehidrogenase tipe 1 kang lumrahé disekresi déning jaringan adiposa. keluwihan hormon iki sajeroning getih nyebapaké sindrom cushing [3] Saliyané iku, hormon kortisol uga diprodhuksi déning ati.[4]

Prabawa ing imunitas[besut | besut sumber]

Minangka glukokortikoid, kortisol duwé prabawa kang kuwat banget tumprap respon peradangan lan sistem kekebalan. Kortisol menghambat konversi fosfatidil kolina dadi asam arakidonat kanti menginduksi produksi lipokortin kang menghambat aktivitas fosfolipase A2. Tanpa asam arakidonat minangka substrat, anané enzim lipo-oksigenase ora berarti anggoné ngasilaké leukotriena

Kortisol uga menghambat produksi tromboksana lan prostaglandin nalika ana radang kanti menghambat enzim sikloksigenase sarta menghambat sekresi sitokina IL-1β nganti ngurangi jumlah kemotaksis leukosit kang bisa dadi ing area infeksi, kalebu ngedunake tingkat proliferasi mastosit, neutrofil, eosinofil, sèl T, sèl B lan fibroblas. Lumrahé sistem kekebalan humoral lan sistem kekebalan selular bakal mudun.

Prabawa ing metabolisme[besut | besut sumber]

Hormon kortisol, kaya hormon T3, duwé efek metabolik tumprap beragam organ lan jaringan awak, kalebu sistem kardiovaskular, sistem saraf pusat, sistem renal dan sistem fetus.[5] Ing prinsipae, kortisol bakal memantik lintasan anabolisme ing ati lan lintasan katabolisme ing jaringan otot lan adiposa guna ningkatake rasio serum gula darah. Amerga saka iku, kaya hormon pertumbuhan, adrenalin lan glukagon, kortisol diyakini duwé sipat diabetogenik, khususe amarga hormon iki ningkatake produksi glukosa déning ati lewat metabolisme glukoneogenesis sawisé menstimulasi pelepasan asam amino saka jaringan otot kang diperlukan kanggo lintasan metabolisme kasebut, nanging menghambat kinerja hormon insulin ing transporter GLUT4 kang disekresi minangka respon ningkate rasio serum gula darah.[6] Luwih lanjut, kortisol berperan minangka stabilisator organel lisosom ing jero sèl saéngga nyegah pelepasan enzim proteolitik.

Ing rongga awak lan peritoneum, kortisol menghambat proliferasi fibroblas lan sintesis senyawa interstitial kaya ta kolagen. Kelebihan glukokortikoid kalebu kortisol bisa njalari penipisan lapisan kulit lan jaringan penghantar lang nopang pembuluh darah kapiler. Hal iki bisa gawé awak dadi luwih rentan lan gampang cedera.

Ing jaringan balung, kortisol meredam fungsi osteoblas nganti mudun pembentukan balung kang anyar. Mangka saka iku sipat umum glukokortikoid ang mudunake penyerapan senyawa kalsium ing saluran pencernaan lan mudunake reabsorsi kalsium ing renal marang sajrone sistem kardiovaskular kanti sipat diuretik, kanthi sekabehane kakehan kortisol bakal njalari osteoporosis.

Cathetan sikil[besut | besut sumber]

  1. ^ "Medical Biochemistry Page". Michael W. King. (Kaunduh 11/1/13)
  2. ^ "Cortisol vs. corticosterone". Theophilus Samuels. (Kaunduh 11/1/13)
  3. ^ "Cortisol Release From Adipose Tissue by 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Humans". Endocrinology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism and NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Liver Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Roland H. Stimson, Jonas Andersson, Ruth Andrew, Doris N. Redhead, Fredrik Karpe,4 Peter C. Hayes, Tommy Olsson, Brian R. Walker. (Kaunduh 11/1/13)
  4. ^ "Liver Is the Site of Splanchnic Cortisol Production in Obese Nondiabetic Humans". Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Department of Radiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories; Rita Basu, Ananda Basu, Meagan Grudzien, Paul Jung, Peer Jacobson, Michael Johnson, Ravinder Singh, Michael Sarr, dan Robert A. Rizza1. In contrast, the liver produced both cortisol (22.7 ± 3.90 μg/min) and D3 cortisol (1.9 ± 0.4 μg/min)... (Kaunduh 11/1/13)
  5. ^ Stephen Nussey; Saffron Whitehead (2001). Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, UK (BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd). k. Chapter 4 The adrenal gland. ISBN 1-85996-252-1. (Kaunduh 12/1/13)
  6. ^ Stephen Nussey; Saffron Whitehead (2001). Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, UK (BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd). k. Diagram showing the major actions of cortisol on metabolism. ISBN 1-85996-252-1. (Kaunduh 12/1/13)