Perang Enem Dinten

Saka Wikipédia, Bauwarna Mardika abasa Jawa / Saking Wikipédia, Bauwarna Mardika abasa Jawi
Langsung menyang: pandhu arah, pados
Perang Enem Dinten
Soldiers Western Wall 1967.jpg
Tentara Angkatan Pertahanan Israel ing Tembok Wétan Yerusalem mboten dangu satelasipun sedaya dipun-culaken saking panawanan.
Tanggal 5 Juni 196710 Juni 1967
Papan Wétan Tengah
Asil Kamenangan Israel
Casus belli Mesir nutup Selat Tiran lan nambah kathah personil tentara wonten ing Semenanjung Sinai, sarta dhukungan Suriah tumrap gerilyawan-gerilyawan ingkang ngawontenaken serangan dhumateng Israel.
Owah-owahan wilayah Israel ngrebat Lurung Gaza lan Semenanjung Sinai saking Mesir, Gisik Kilèn (kalebet Yerusalem Timur) saking Yordania, lan Dhataran Inggil Golan saking Suriah.
Pihak sing kalibat
Flag of Israel.svg Israel
Flag of Egypt.svg Mesir
Flag of Syria.svg Suriah
Flag of Jordan.svg Yordania
Flag of Iraq.svg Irak
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Arab saudi
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan
Flag of Algeria.svg Aljazair
Komandhan
Flag of Israel.svg Yitzhak Rabin
Flag of Israel.svg Moshe Dayan
Flag of Israel.svg Uzi Narkiss
Flag of Israel.svg Israel Tal
Flag of Israel.svg Mordechai Hod
Flag of Israel.svg Ariel Sharon
Flag of Egypt.svg Abdel Hakim Amer

Flag of Egypt.svg Abdul Munim Riad
Flag of Jordan.svg Zaid ibn Shaker
Flag of Syria.svg Hafez al-Assad

Kakuwatan
264.000, 197 pesawat tempur 280.000 pasukan
Flag of Egypt.svg Mesir : 150.000
Flag of Syria.svg Suriah 75.000
Flag of Jordan.svg Yordania 55.000
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Arab saudi 20.000
812 pesawat tempur
Cacahé korban
779 pejah

2.563 tatu
15 dipun tawan

21.000 pejah

45.000 tatu
6.000 dipun tawan
langkung saking 400 pesawat dipun-musnahaken


Perang Enem Dinten utawi Perang 1967 utawi Perang Juni (Arab:حرب يونيو, ħarb yunio ; Ibrani: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha‑Yamim), ugi kawentar kanthi sesulih Perang Arab-Israel 1967, Perang Arab-Israel katiga, an‑Naksah ("Kamunduran"), punika perang antawis Israel lan tetangginipun negari-negari Arab inggih punika Mesir, Yordania, lan Suriah. Negari-negari Irak, Arab Saudi, Kuwait, lan Aljazair ugi ndhèrèk ngintun prajurit lan gaman dhumateng pasukan Arab.

Wonten ing wulan Mei 1967, Mesir ngusir Pasukan Perdamaian PBB (UNEF) ingkang sampun dipun gelar wonten ing Semenanjung Sinai, wiwit taun 1957 (sakrampungipun serangan Israel utawi Krisis Suez taun 1956). Minangka réaksi dhumateng kategangan antawis Israel-Siria, Mesir lajeng nyiapaken 1000 tank lan 100.000 prajurit wonten ing tapel wates, nutup Selat Tiran kanggé kapal-kapal mawi gendéra Israel lan kapal-kapal ingkang amot material strategis, lan ngajak aksi sesarengan negari-negari Arab nglawan Israel. Wonten ing tanggal 5 Juni 1967, Israel lajeng ngluncuraken serangan ngrumiyini (pre-emptive) dhumateng Angkatan Udhara Mesir, amargi sumelang bilih pikantuk serangan saking Mesir.[1]

Latar wingking[sunting | sunting sumber]

Buntut Krisis Suez[sunting | sunting sumber]

Krisis Suez taun 1956 nggambaraken kakawonan militèr Mesir nanging arupi kamenangan politis. Bab punika lajeng dados perkawis ingkang nuwuhaken Perang Enem Dinten. Tekanan diplomatik ingkang awrat saking Amérika Sarékat lan Uni Soviet meksa Israel narik tentaranipun saking Semenanjung Sinai. Sakrampungipun perang 1956, Mesir sarujuk dhumateng panggelaran pasukan PBB wonten ing Sinai, ingkang dipun wastani United Nations Emergency Force, kanggé njagi wilayah bébas militer, lan nyegah gerilyawan supados mboten nyebrang dhateng tlatah Israel. Mesir ugi sarujuk mbikak malih Selat Tiran, salajengipun, tapel wates antawis Mesir lan Israel kanggé sementawis dados kawontenan radi tentrem.[2] Sakrampungipun perang 1956, tlatah punika taksih kisruh, dèrèng wonten solusi ingkang maton. Wekdal punika, mboten wonten negari Arab ingkang ngakeni Israel. Siria, ingkang dipun biyantu déning Blok Sovièt, wiwit nyeponsori serangan gerilya dhumateng Israel ing taun 1960, minangka wujud lan bagéan saking "perang pembebasan rakyat", ingkang dipun rancang kanggé ngadhepi oposisi Partai Ba'ath.[3]

Bab toya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ing taun 1964, Israel wiwit narik toya saking Lèpèn Jordan kanggé saluran toya nasional (National Water Carrier). Taun sklajengipun, negar-negari Arab lajeng ndamel rencana pengaturan konstruksi sumber toya (Headwater Diversion Plan), ingkang manawi sampun dados, lajeng ménggokaken toya Lèpèn Banias sakdèrèngipun mlebet Israel lan Seganten Galiléa, supados mili mlebet dam ing Mukhaiba kanggé Yordania lan Suriah, lan ménggokaken toya Lèpèn Hasbani dhumateng Lèpèn Litani, ing Libanon. Pengalihan ilèn toya kalawau saged ngirangi kapasitas saluran toya Israel kirang langkung 35%, lan total sumber toya Israel kinten-kinten 11%.[4] Tentara Israel utawi Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) lajeng nyerang proyèk pengalihan toya wau ingkang wonten ing Suriah, ing wulan Maret, Mei, lan Agustus 1965, arupi rangkéan kakerasan tapel wates ingkang lajeng nuwuhaken perang.[5]

Israel lan Yordania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama: Prastawa Samu

Tanggal 12 November 1966 patroli tapel wates Israel ngidak ranjau saéngga, tiga prajurit pejah lan enem tatu. Israel pitados manawi ranjau punika dipun pasang déning militan saking Es Samu ing tlatah Gisik Kilèn (West Bank). Énjang-énjang sanget, tanggal 13 November, Raja Hussein saking Yordania, ingkang nembé ngawontenaken pepanggihan rahasia sareng Abba Eban lan Golda Meir bab pengamanan tapel wates, pikantuk pesen langsung saking kontakipun tiyang Israel manawi Israel mboten gadhah maksad badhé nyerang Yordania.[6]

Wonten ing "Operasi Shredder", operasi militer Israel paling ageng wiwit taun 1956, pasukan kanthi kakiyatan antawis 3.000-4.000 prajurit dipun biyantu déning tank lan montor mabur dipun sebar wonten ing pasukan-pasukan cadhangan, tetep wonten ing lebet wates Israel, déné kalih kelompok penyerang, nyebrang tlatah Gisik Kilèn.


Israel lan Suriah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sanèsipun nyponsori serangan gerilya dhumateng Israel (asring nglangkungi tlatah Yordania), Suriah ugi miwiti némbak (nganggé mortir tlatah wétan-lèr Galilee saking Dhataran Inggil Golan, minangka bagéan saking rebat unggul tlatah demiliterisasi ( Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)), ingkang dipun aken déning Israel lan Suriah.[7]

Suriah ndakwa manawi Israel tansah ngganggu para among tani Arab wonten ing DMZ, lan némbaki posisi militer Suriah, kamangka traktor-traktor Israel nanemi tlatah Arab ingkang wonten ing DMZ, dipun réncangi déning pasukan Israel ingkang sacara mboten sah dipun gelar wonten ing tlatah punika. Suriah lapur dhumateng Dewan Keamanan (PBB) manawi pangrisakan makam sakubengipun garis démarkasi punika karepipun Israel kanggé ningkataken kategangan kanggé alesan badhé nyerang Siria lan miyaraken tlatah ingkang dipun kuwaosi wonten ing DMZ kanthi ngicalaken hak para petani Arab ing mrika. Suriah mratélaaken manawi sawenèh témbakan saking Suriah punika arupi walesan tumrap témbakan provokatif Israel dhumateng para among tani Arab utawi pos-pos militer Suriah. [8]


Penarikan mundur Pasukan PBB[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wonten ing tanggal 16 Mei jam 22:00, pimpinan United Nations Emergency Force, Jenderal Indar Jit Rikhye, pikantuk serat saking Jenderal Mohammed Fawzy, Kepala Staf Republik Persatuan Arab, ingkang suraosipun: To your information, I gave my instructions to all U.A.R. armed forces to be ready for action against Israel, the moment it might carry out any aggressive action against any Arab country. Due to these instructions our troops are already concentrated in Sinai on our eastern border. For the sake of complete security of all U.N. troops which install OPs along our borders, I request that you issue your orders to withdraw all these troops immediately. Rikhye nyarios manawi badhé lapur dhumateng Sekjen PBB bab parintah punika.[9]

Sekjen PBB U Thant, nyobi ngrundhingaken bab punika kaliyan pamaréntah Mesir, nanging wonten ing tanggal 18 Mei Mentri Luar Negeri Mesir ngaturi pirsa dhumateng negari-negari ingkang nggadhahi pasukan wonten ing UNEF, manawi tugas UNEF ing Mesir lan Gaza sampun dipun endhegaken, pasukan kedah énggal késah. Pamaréntah India lan Yugoslavia mutusaken narik mundur pasukanipun saking UNEF, badhé menapa kémawon keputusanipun U Thant. Sementawis U Thant ngusulaken supados pasukan UNEF dipun gelar malih wonten ing tlatah tapel wates ing nglebet tlatah Israel, nanging Israel mboten sarujuk, kanthi alesan manawi kontingen PBB saking negari-negari ingkang mengsahi Israel mangké badhé ngalang-alangi respon pasukan Israel dhumateng serangan Mesir tinimbang ngalang-alangi serangan pasukan Mesir.[10]

Selat Tiran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tanggal 22 Mei, Mesir ngumumaken manawi Selat Tiran badhé dipun tutup kanggé sedaya kapal kanthi gendéra Israel utawi ngamot material strategis, wiwit tanggal 23 Mei.[11] Republik Arab Mesir sampun netepaken wiyaripun seganten teritorial 12 mil seganten, sumbut kaliyan pasal 5 Ordinance 18 Januari 1951 ingkang dipun éwahi déning Dekrit tanggal 17 Februari 1958, rujuk kaliyan pasal 3 UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea).[2] Sementawis pasal 23 UNCLOS mratélaaken manawi kapal-kapal ingkang migunaaken hak liwat damai nglangkungi seganten teritorial, kedah nggadhahi dokumen lan ngakeni aturan khusus ingkang dipun tetepaken déning perjanjian internasional, kamangka pamaréntah Mesir ngumumaken manawi kapal-kapal wau kedah pikantuk palilah sakdèrèngipun mlebet seganten teritorial Mesir.

Negari-negari Arab mboten ngakeni hak Israel nglangkungi selat, amargi Israel mboten ndhèrèk napakastani Konvensi Seganten Teritorial utawi (Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone), utaminipun pasal 16(4) ingkang maringi hak dhumateng Israel.[12] Senajan makaten, sampun dados kabiasaan internasional manawi kapal saking pundi kémawon gadhah hak lintas damai langkung ing seganten teritorial.[13][14]


Mesir lan Yordania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Salami wulan Mei lan Juni, pamaréntah Israel ngupayaaken supados Yordania mboten ndhèrèk perang; supados mboten dipun kepung saking pundhi-pundhi lan mboten kepéngin rundhingan kaliyan pedunung Palestina saking tlatah Gisik Kilèn. Ananging, Raja Yordania King Hussein kaiket déning nasionalisme pan-Arab; saéngga, ing tanggal 30 Mei, Yordania napakastani kerjasama pertahanan kaliyan Mesir, pramila ndhèrèk gabung kaliyan aliansi militer ingkang sampun kawangun antawis Mesir lan Siria.. Presidhèn Nasser, mratelaaken : Our basic objective will be the destruction of Israel. The Arab people want to fight.[15]


Paprangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Serangan wiwitan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama: Operasi Focus

Gerakan wiwitan Israel ingkang paling wigati arupi serangan kejut tangkal (preemptive surprise attack) dhumateng Bala langit (Angkatan Udhara) Mesir. Bala Langit Mesir punika ingkang paling ageng lan modern ing antawis pasukan Arab, arupi kinten-kinten 450 montor mabur tempur (combat aircraft), sedaya damelan Soviet lan klebet taksih énggal.

Ingkang dados perhatosan lan sasaran serangan Israel inggih punika 30 Tupolev Tu-16|Tu-16 “Badger” pembom medium, ingkang saged ndamel karisakan ageng tumrap Israel.[16] Tanggal 5 Juni jam 7:45 wekdal Israel, nalika siriné pertahanan ing saindhenging Israel, bala langit Israel (IAF) ngluncuraken Operasi Focus (Moked). Sedaya kakuatan langit Israel arupi watawis 200 operational jet[17] mabur ninggalaken langit Israel kanggé nyerang lapang terbang Mesir.[18] Infrastruktur pertahanan Mesir nalika semanten awon sanget, lan mboten wonten montor mabur tempur ingkang dipun singitaken wonten bunker. Montor mabur tempur Israel muter rumiyin langkung saknginggilipun seganten Mediterranean sadèrèngipun ménggok tumuju Mesir. Sementawis punika, pasukan Mesir malah nutup pertahanan udhara amargi kuwatir serangan gerilyawan pembrontak némbak pesawatipun Marsekal Amer lan Lt-Jendral. Sidqi Mahmoud, ingkang nembé mabur saking al Maza tumuju dhumateng Bir Tamada ing Sinai badhé manggihi para komandan pasukan ingkang wonten ing mrika. Nanging bab punika mboten wonten bédanipun amargi pilot-pilot Israel mabur sakngandhapipun jangkauan radar Mesir lan sakngandhapipun jangkauan témbakan bateré misil anti montor mabur SA-2.[19] Pasukan Israel nganggé strategi serangan campuran, ngebom lan strafing (témbakan senapan mesin saking montor mabur),sarta bom dipun dhawahaken wonten ing landhas pacu saéngga mboten sage d dipun anggé lan nggampilaken serangan Israel salajengipun. Serangan punika kasil langkung saking ingkang dipun karepaken, saged ngagètaken Mesir lan ngrisak amèh sedaya kakiatan bala langit Mesir ing dharatan, kanthi korban wnten péhak Israel namung sakedhik.. Langkung saking 300 montor mabur Mesir risak lan 100 pilotipun kaperjaya.[20] Péhak Israel kicalan 19 montor mabur, kathahipun amargi sabab operational kados karisakan mesin, kacilakan lan sapanunggilipun.

Gaza Strip lan Semenanjung Sinai[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penaklukan Sinai. 7 Juni-8 Juni 1967

Pasukan Mesir madeg saking pitung divisi: sekawan Divisi lapis waja, kalih Divisi infantri, lan setunggal Infantri mekanisasi. Sedaya, Mesir kagungan kinten-kinten 100,000 pasukan lan 900-950 tank wonten ing Sinai, dipun biyantu déning 1,100 APC lan 1,000 gaman mriem artilleri.[21] Susunan tempur kados makaten punika adhedhasar doktrin Soviet, ingkang ngginaaken satuan lapis waja ing kedalaman strategis kanggé mujudaken pertahanan dinamis, sementawis satuan infantri dipun dhapuk kanggé ngadhepi mengsah wonten ing pertempuran pertahanan.

Pasukan Israel ingkang dipun konsèntrasèaken wonten ing tapel wates dumados saking enem brigade lapis waja, setunggal brigade infantri, setunggal brigade infantri mekanisasi, tiga brigade pasukan para lan 700 tank ndadoskaen total kinten-kinten 70,000 prajurit, ingkang dipun rangkum wonten ing tigang divisi lapis waja.

Ugi pirsani[sunting | sunting sumber]


Tokoh Kunci[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cathetan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Serangan pre-emptive (ngrumiyini): Ingkang katindakaken déning Mesir:
  2. ^ "Israel (country)". Encarta Encyclopedia. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575008_10/Israel.html.
  3. ^ Rabil, 2003, pp. 17-18.
  4. ^ Murakami, Masahiro (1995) Nata toya kanggé perdamaian ing Wétan Tengah: Strategi-strategi alternatif
  5. ^ Koboril lan Glanting z, 1998, pp. 129-130.
  6. ^ Bowen, 2003, p. 26 (citing Amman Cables 1456, 1457, 11 Desember 1966, National Security Files (Country File: Middle East), LBJ Library (Austin, Texas), Box 146).
  7. ^ Hajjar, Sami G. The Israel-Syria Track, Middle East Policy, Volume VI, February 1999, Number 3. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
  8. ^ Yearbook of the United Nations, 1967 [1]
  9. ^ Rikhye, 1980, pp. 16-19.
  10. ^ Oren, 2002, p. 72
  11. ^ 'Egypt Closes Gulf Of Aqaba To Israel Ships: Defiant move by Nasser raises Middle East tension', The Times, Tuesday, May 23, 1967; pg. 1; Issue 56948; col A.
  12. ^ Christie, 1999, p. 104.
  13. ^ The Corfu Channel Case (Merits), International Court of Justice, ICJ Reports, 1949, pp. 28-29
  14. ^ O'Brien, John, 2001, International Law, p. 407.
  15. ^ BBC On this Day, Mesir lan Yordania sesarengan nyerang Israel. Diaksês 8 Oktober 2005.
  16. ^ Pollack, 2004, p. 58.
  17. ^ Oren, 2002, p. 172
  18. ^ Bowen, 2003, p. 99 (author interview with Moredechai Hod, 7 Mei 2002).
  19. ^ Bowen, 2003, pp. 114-115 (author interview with General Salahadeen Hadidi who presided over the first court martial of the heads of the air force and the air defence system after the war).
  20. ^ Pollack, 2005, p. 474.
  21. ^ Pollack, 2004, p. 59.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Aloni, Shlomo (2001). Arab-Israeli Air Wars 1947-1982. Osprey Aviation. ISBN 1-84176-294-6
  • Bar-On, Mordechai, Morris, Benny and Golani, Motti (2002). Reassessing Israel's Road to Sinai/Suez, 1956: A "Trialogue". In Gary A. Olson (Ed.). Traditions and Transitions in Israel Studies: Books on Israel, Volume VI (pp. 3-42). SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-5585-8
  • Bard, Mitchell G. (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Middle East Conflict. Alpha books. ISBN 0028644107
  • Black, Ian (1992). Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3286-3
  • Boczek, Boleslaw Adam (2005). International Law: A Dictionary. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810850788
  • Bowen, Jeremy (2003). Six Days: How the 1967 War Shaped the Middle East. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-3095-7
  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
  • Christie, Hazel (1999). Law of the Sea. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4382-4
  • Cristol, A Jay (2002). Liberty Incident: The 1967 Israeli Attack on the U.S. Navy Spy Ship. Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-536-7
  • Eban, Abba (1977). Abba Eban: An Autobiography. Random House. ISBN 0-394-49302-8
  • Ehteshami, Anoushiravan and Hinnebusch, Raymond A. (1997). Syria & Iran: Middle Powers in a Penetrated Regional System. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15675-0
  • Gat, Moshe (2003). Britain and the Conflict in the Middle East, 1964-1967: The Coming of the Six-Day War. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-97514-2
  • Gelpi, Christopher (2002). Power of Legitimacy: Assessing the Role of Norms in Crisis Bargaining. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09248-6
  • Hammel, Eric (October 2002). "Sinai air strike:June 5 1967". Military Heritage 4 (2): 68–73.
  • Hammel, Eric (1992). Six Days in June: How Israel Won the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-7535-6
  • Hussein of Jordan (1969). My "War" with Israel. London: Peter Owen. ISBN 0-7206-0310-2
  • Hopwood, Derek (1991). Egypt: Politics and Society. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-09432-1
  • International Committee of the Red Cross (1998). International Committee of the Red Cross.
  • Koboril, Iwao and Glantz, Michael H. (1998). Central Eurasian Water Crisis. United Nations University Press. ISBN 92-808-0925-3
  • Makiya, Kanan (1998). Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21439-0
  • Morris, Benny (1997). Israel's Border Wars, 1949-1956. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829262-7
  • Mutawi, Samir (2002). Jordan in the 1967 War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52858-5
  • Oren, Michael (2002). Six Days of War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515174-7
  • Phythian, Mark (2001). The Politics of British Arms Sales Since 1964. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5907-0
  • Podeh, Elie (Winter, 2004). "The Lie That Won't Die: Collusion, 1967". Middle East Quarterly 11 (1). http://www.meforum.org/article/587.
  • Pollack, Kenneth (2004). Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8783-6
  • Pollack, Kenneth (2005). Air Power in the Six-Day War. The Journal of Strategic Studies. 28(3), 471-503.
  • Prior, Michael (1999). Zionism and the State of Israel: A Moral Inquiry. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-20462-3
  • Quigley, John B. (2005). Case for Palestine: An International Law Perspective. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3539-5
  • Quigley, John B. (1990). Palestine and Israel: A Challenge to Justice. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1023-6
  • Rabil, Robert G. (2003). Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-58826-149-2
  • Rezun, Miron (1990). Iran and Afghanistan. In A. Kapur (Ed.). Diplomatic Ideas and Practices of Asian States (pp. 9-25). Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09289-7
  • Rikhye, Indar Jit (1980). The Sinai Blunder. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-3136-1
  • Rubenberg, Cheryl A. (1989). Israel and the American National Interest. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06074-1
  • Seale, Patrick (1988). Asad: The Struggle for Peace in the Middle East. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06976-5
  • Segev, Tom (2005). Israel in 1967. Keter. ISBN 965-07-1370-0.
  • Sela, Avraham (1997). The Decline of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Middle East Politics and the Quest for Regional Order. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-3537-7
  • Shlaim, Avi (2001). The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32112-6.
  • Smith, Grant (2006). Deadly Dogma. Institute for Research: Middle Eastern Policy. ISBN 0-9764437-4-0
  • Stephens, Robert H. (1971). Nasser: A Political Biography. London: Allen Lane/The Penguin Press. ISBN 0-7139-0181-0
  • Stone, David (2004). Wars of the Cold War. Brassey's. ISBN 1-85753-342-9
  • van Creveld, Martin (2004). Defending Israel: A Controversial Plan Toward Peace. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 0-312-32866-4

Wacan Terusan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pranala jawi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cithakan:Konflik Arab-Israel

Sumber artikel punika saking kaca situs web: "http://jv.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Perang_Enem_Dinten&oldid=869637"