Perang Sipil Nigéria

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Perang Sipil Nigéria
Biafra independent state map-en.svg
Républik Biafra kang mardika sacara de facto ing sasi Juni 1967
Titimangsa6 Juli 1967 – 15 Januari 1970
(2 years, 6 months, 1 week and 2 days)
PernahWewengkon Kidul-Wétané Nigéria
Asil Wijayané Nigéria
Owah-owahan
laladan
Biafra gabung manèh karo Nigéria
Péhak kang perang
 Nigeria
Flag of Syria.svg Egypt (Air support)[1][2]
 Biafra
Manggala saha wadana
Cithakan:Country data Nigéria Yakubu Gowon
Nigeria Murtala Mohammed
Nigeria Benjamin Adekunle
Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo
Nigeria Mohammed Shuwa
Nigeria E.A. Etuk
Nigeria Shehu Musa Yar'Adua
Nigeria Theophilus Danjuma
Nigeria Ibrahim Haruna
Nigeria Ipoola Alani Akinrinade
Nigeria Ted Hamman-
Nigeria Muhammadu Buhari
Nigeria Ibrahim BabangidaCithakan:WIA
Nigeria Isaac Adaka Boro-
Nigeria Idris Garba
Mesir Mustafa Shalaby El Hennawy
Biafra Odumegwu Ojukwu
Biafra Philip Effiong
Biafra Alexander Madiebo
Biafra Albert Okonkwo
Biafra Victor Banjo Skull and Crossbones.svg
Biafra Ogbugo Kalu
Biafra Joseph Achuzie
Biafra Azum Asoya
Biafra Mike Inveso
Biafra Timothy Onwuatuegwu-
BiafraJerman Rolf Steiner
Biafra Festus Akagha
BiafraKanadha Lynn Garrison
Biafra Taffy Williams
Biafra Jonathan Uchendu
Biafra Ogbo OjiCithakan:WIA
Biafra Humphrey Chukwuka
Biafra H.M. Njoku
Daya
Nigeria Wadyabla Nigéria:
85,000[18]–150,000[19] (1967)
(Possible 100,000)[20][21]
250,000 (1968)[22]
200,000[23]–250,000[19] (1970)
Biafra Wadyabala Biafra:
10,000[21]–100,000[19] (1967)
(Possible 30,000)[18]
110,000 (1968)[24]
50,000[23]–100,000[25] (1970)
Kurban

Wong militèr kang kaprajaya: 45,000[23]–100,000[26][27] wong kaprajaya


2 yuta wong sipil pejah nalikané blokadhe sasuwéné mangsa kaliren[28]


Wong katundung: 2,000,000–4,500,000[29]


Wong ngungsi: 500,000[30]–3,000,000

Perang Sipil Nigéria, utawa uga dikenal minangka Perang Biafra (6 Juli 1967 – 15 Januari 1970), ya iku sawijining perang antarané pamaréntah Nigéria lan nagara pecahan saka Biafra. Biafra kuwi makili swara nasionalis saka wong Igbo. Nanging wong-wong kang lungguh ing kapangurusané ngerasa yèn wong-wong iku wis ora bisa mlaku bebarengan karo papréntahan fèdheral sing diwengku déning wong-wong Lor. Cengkahan sing ana kasil saka carukan pulitik, ékonomi, ètnis, budaya lan agama kang kadadèn sadurungé dhékolonisasi formal Nigéria déning Inggris saka taun 1960-an nganti taun 1963. Bab sing nyebabaké perang kasebut ing taun 1966 ing antarané pambrontak militèr, pambrontak walesan, lan persekusi wong-wong Igbo kang ndunungi Nigéria sisih Lor. Kontrol prodhuksi lenga kang makolèhi ing Délta Nigèr dadi bab kang wigati.

Sajroning sataun, wadyablanaé Pamaréntah Fédheral sing ngepung Biafra, kasil nyaplok fasilitas lenga (oil facilities) ing wewengkon pasisir lan kutha Port Harcourt. Blokadhe iki katindakaké nalikané mangka stalemate kang ujungé mangsa paceklik kang nemen. Sasuwéné perang rong setengah taun, ana udakara 100.000 kurban militèr, déné watara 500.000 lan 2 yuta wong sipil Biafra séda amarga kaliren.[31]

Ing tengahané taun 1968, gambar wong-wong Biafra kang kaliren amarga nandang kurang gisi ngebaki médhia masa saka nagara Kulon. Kahanan kang ngegirisi iki nyebabaké anané kontrovèrsi publik ing njaban rangkah, njalari anané undhak-undhakan anggaran uga wigatiné organisasi non-pamaréntah internasional kang signifikan. Inggris lan Uni Sovyèt iku panyengkuyung utawa pamaréntahan Nigéria ing Lagos, Israèl, lan sawenèh nagara liya kang uga nyengkuyung Biafra. Prancis lan Israel nyedhiyakaké para kombatan.

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. "The Literary Magazine - the Biafra War and the Age of Pestilence by Herbert Ekwe Ekwe". 
  2. Shadows : Airlift and Airwar in Biafra and Nigeria 1967–1970, by Michael I. Draper (ISBN 1-902109-63-5)
  3. https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/e5/c15646.htm
  4. Nigeria Since Independence: The First Twenty-five Years : International Relations, 1980. Page 204
  5. Sadleman, Stephen (2000). The Ties That Divide. k. 86. Dijupuk 8 June 2018. 
  6. Biafra Revisited, 2006. Page 5.
  7. The Roots and Consequences of Civil Wars and Revolutions: Conflicts that Changed World History, by Spencer C. Tucker (ISBN 9781440842948)
  8. a b c d e "The Biafran War, Nigerian History, Nigerian Civil War". Diarsip saka sing asli ing 12 March 2008. 
  9. "Biafran Airlift: Israel’s Secret Mission to Save Lives." Press, Eitan. United With Israel. www.unitedwithisrael.org Published 13 October 2013. Accessed 13 January 2017.
  10. Genocide and the Europeans, 2010. Page 71.
  11. There's A Riot Going On: Revolutionaries, Rock Stars, and the Rise and Fall of '60s Counter-Culture, 2007. Page 213.
  12. The USSR in Third World Conflicts: Soviet Arms and Diplomacy in Local Wars 1945–1980, 1986. Page 91
  13. Griffin, "French military policy in the Nigerian Civil War" (2015), p. 122. "Starting in October 1967, there were also direct Czech arms flights, by a network of pilots led by Jack Malloch, a Rhodesian in contact with Houphouët-Boigny and Mauricheau-Beupré."
  14. "Republic of Biafra 1967-1970". 
  15. Malcolm MacDonald: Bringing an End to Empire, 1995. Page 416.
  16. Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria, 2001. Page 54.
  17. Africa 1960–1970: Chronicle and Analysis, 2009. Page 423
  18. a b Nkwocha, 2010: 156
  19. a b c Karl DeRouen & U. K. Heo (2007). Civil wars of the world: Major conflicts since World War II. Tomo I. Santa Bárbara: ABC CLIO, pp. 569. ISBN 978-1-85109-919-1.
  20. Alfred Obiora Uzokwe (2003). Surviving in Biafra: The Story of the Nigerian Civil War : Over Two Million Died. Lincoln: iUniverse, pp xvi. ISBN 978-0-595-26366-0.
  21. a b Dr. Onyema Nkwocha (2010). The Republic of Biafra: Once Upon a Time in Nigeria My Story of the Biafra-Nigerian Civil War - A Struggle for Survival (1967–1970). Bloomington: AuthorHouse, pp. 25. ISBN 978-1-4520-6867-1.
  22. Biafran War. Global Security.
  23. a b c Phillips, Charles, & Alan Axelrod (2005). "Nigerian-Biafran War". Encyclopedia of Wars. Tomo II. New York: Facts On File, Inc., ISBN 978-0-8160-2853-5.
  24. West Africa. Londres: Afrimedia International, 1969, pp. 1565. "Malnutrition affects adults less than children, half of whom have now died, reports Debrel, who also describes the reorganisation of the Biafran army after the 1968 defeats, making it a "political" army of 110,000 men; its automatic weapons, (...)".
  25. Stan Chu Ilo (2006). The Face of Africa: Looking Beyond the Shadows. Bloomington: AuthorHouse, pp. 138. ISBN 978-1-4208-9705-0.
  26. Paul R. Bartrop (2012). A Biographical Encyclopedia of Contemporary Genocide. Santa Bárbara: ABC-CLIO, pp. 107. ISBN 978-0-313-38679-4.
  27. Bridgette Kasuka (2012). Prominent African Leaders Since Independence. Bankole Kamara Taylor, pp. 331. ISBN 978-1-4700-4358-2.
  28. Stevenson, "Capitol Gains" (2014), p. 314.
  29. Godfrey Mwakikagile (2001). Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria. Huntington: Nova Publishers, pp. 176. ISBN 978-1-56072-967-9.
  30. DeRouen & Heo, 2007: 570
  31. "ICE Case Studies: The Biafran War". American University: ICE Case Studies. American University. 1997. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 14 February 2017. Dijupuk 6 November 2016.