Haifa

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Haifa
Haifa, 2006-01-30.jpg
Haifa coa.svg
Lambang Haifa
Dhistrik Haifa
Pamaréntahan Dhaptar kutha
Basa Ibrani חֵיפָה
(Translit.) Heifa
Basa Arab حَيْفَا
Populasi Kutha: 265.000 (kutha)
Tlatah urban sinambungan: 600.000
Tlatah métropolitan Haifa: 1.039.000 (2007)
Walikota Yona Yahav
Koordinat 32°49′0″N 34°59′0″E / 32.816667°N 34.983333°E / 32.816667; 34.983333Koordinat: 32°49′0″N 34°59′0″E / 32.816667°N 34.983333°E / 32.816667; 34.983333
Website haifa.muni.il (Basa Inggris)

Haifa (Ibrani:חֵיפָה; Arab: حَيْفَا‎) iku sawijining kutha palabuhan ing Israel sisih lor. Kutha iki sing gedhé dhéwé ing Israel sisih lor lan kutha paling gedhé kaping telu ing negara iku. Pedunung kutha iki kurang luwih ana 265.000 jiwa. Kutha iki populasiné campuran, sing manggon yaiku wong Yahudi lan wong Arab. Wong Yahudiné akèh sing hijrah saka manten Uni Sovyèt. Ing kutha iki uga ana Punjer Donya Bahá'i, sawijining Situs Warisan Donya UNESCO.

Kutha iki dibangun ing iringing Gunung Karmel, sajarah padunungan ing tlatah iki wis luwih saka 3,000 taun. Papan padunungan paling tuwa sing diweruhi ing saubengé tlatah iki ya iku Tell Abu Hawam, sawijining plabuhan cilik sing dibangun ing abad prunggu (abad kaping-14 SM).[1] Ing abad kaping-3 M, Haifa diweruhi minangka pusat gawé bahan celup (dye). Jroning maabad-abad, kutha iki bola-bali ganti tangan: dikuwasani déning Phoenicians, Yahudi, Hasmonean, Romawi kuna, Byzantin, Arab, Crusaders, Ottoman, Inggris, lan bangsa Israel. Wiwit pangadegé negara Israel ing taun 1948, kutha iki diatur déning Munisipal Haifa.

Saiki, kutha sing jembaré 63,7 km2 iki dadi plabuhan utama sing dumunung ing panté Mediteran ing Teluk Haifa. Kutha iki dumunung watara 90 km saloré kutha Tel Aviv lan dadi pusat régional saka Dhistrik Lor Israel. Rong sekolah dhuwur ya iku Universitas Haifa lan Technion, dumunung ing Haifa, lan kutha iki nduwé peran wigati jroning ékonomi Israel. Haifa duwé sawetara taman tènologi dhuwur, antara liya sing paling tuwa lan paling gedhé ing Israel,[2] plabuhan indhustri, lan panyulingan lenga patra. Haifa tau dadi terminal pipa saluran lenga saka Irak liwat Jordania.[3]

Etimologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Haifa Kulon dideleng saka ndhuwur

Padunungan paling tuwa ing Haifa ya iku Sycaminum.[4] Basa Arab Tell el-Semak (utawa Tell es-Samak, maknané "tumpukan iwak") dilestarèkaké lan owah jeneng kuna iki, sing dipigunakaké déning para pedunung lokal kanggo nyebut tkatah pesisir ing pèrènging Gunung Karmèl.[5] Ing Basa Ibrani, diweruhi kanthi jeneng Tel Shiqmona utawa Shikmonah.[5] Shiqmona disebutaké sepisan jroning Mishnah (composed c. 200 CE) ngarujuk marang jeneng woh-wohan liar sing tuwuh ing saubengé tlatah kasebut.[5] Jeneng Efa pisanan muncul sajroning kakuwasan bangsa Romawi, ora suwé sawisé pungkasan abad kaping-1, nalika bèntèng Romawi lan padunungan Yahudi dibangun sacedhaké Tell es-Samak .[4][5] Haifa disebutaké luwih saka kaping 100 ing Talmud, sawijining buku pusat tumrap Judaisme.[5] Hefa utawa Hepha ing karya sastra abad kaping-4 saka Eusebius of Caesarea, Onomasticon (Onom. 108, 31), disebutaké minangka jeneng liya saka Sycaminus.[6] Sinonim jeneng iku dipratélakaké déning Moshe Sharon sing nulis yèn padunungan kuna kembar, sing diarani Haifa-Sycaminon, sacara sethithik mbaka sethithik nyawiji, dadi kutha kembar sing jroning basa Yunani diarani Sycaminon utawa Sycaminos Polis.[5]

Dhémografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Haifa iku kutha ing Israel paling gedhe katelu, kanthi populasi 103.000 kepala kulawarga,[7] utawa gunggung 266.300 jiwa. Imigran saka tilas Uni Sovyèt minangka 25% saka pedunung Haifa.[8] Miturut data biro statistik Israel, pedunung Arab ing Israel watara 10% saka total pedunung Haifa, akèh-akèhé manggon ing in padunungan Wadi Nisnas, Abbas lan Halissa neighborhoods.[8]

Walikutha ing Haifa[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Najib Effendi al-Yasin (1873–77)
  • Ahmad Effendi Jalabi (1878–81)
  • Mustafa Bey al-Salih (1881–84)
  • Mustafa Pasha al-Khalil (1885–1903)
  • Jamil Sadiq (1904–10)
  • Rif'at al-Salah (1910–11)
  • Ibrahim al-Khalil (1911–13)
  • Abd al-Rahman al-Haj (1920–27)
  • Hasan Bey Shukri (1914–20, 1927–40)
  • Shabtai Levy (1940–51)
  • Abba Hushi (1951–1969)
  • Moshe Flimann (1969–1973)
  • Yosef Almogi (1974–1975)
  • Yeruham Zeisel (1975–1978)
  • Arie Gur'el (1978–1993)
  • Amram Mitzna (1993–2003)
  • Giora Fisher (walikutha ad interim, 2003)
  • Yona Yahav (2003–saiki)

Kutha kembar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Haifa, Keter Publishing, Jerusalem, 1972, vol. 7, pp. 1134-1139
  2. ^ "GavYam". Gav-Yam.co.il. http://www.gav-yam.co.il/GavYam/site/gavyam/eng/items/popup.asp?fid=285&NP=361. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  3. ^ Cohen, Amiram. "U.S. Checking Possibility of Pumping Oil from Northern Iraq to Haifa, via Jordan". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=332835&contrassID=2&subContrassID=1&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
  4. ^ a b Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: a historical encyclopedia (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576079198, 9781576079195. http://books.google.ca/books?id=3SapTk5iGDkC&pg=PA159&dq=haifa+arabic&hl=en&ei=re3XTcLtCdSahQfk7P3RBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=haifa%20arabic&f=false. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Moshe Sharon, Fondation Max van Berchem (2007). Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae addendum: squeezes in the Max van Berchem collection (Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Northern Syria) (Illustrated ed.). BRILL. pp. 99–103. ISBN 9004157808, 9789004157804. http://books.google.ca/books?id=1d8xHcor0psC&pg=PA99&dq=eusebius+haifa&hl=en&ei=FT3ZTZnHGNGHhQebw8W0Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEgQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=eusebius%20haifa&f=false. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
  6. ^ Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson (2005). Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land (4th, revised, illustrated ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 213–214. http://books.google.ca/books?id=27nq65cZUIgC&pg=PA213&dq=hefa+ancient&hl=en&ei=_jjZTeGOE4a7hAeT0PyzBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=hefa%20ancient&f=false.
  7. ^ "Haifa". Jewish Agency. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070926234156/http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Aliyah/About+Israel/Cities/Haifa+9.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  8. ^ a b "The Arab Population of Israel 2003" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. http://www.cbs.gov.il/statistical/arab_pop03e.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  9. ^ "Boston" (in Hebrew). Haifa Municipality. http://www.haifa.muni.il/haifa/pages/boston.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
  10. ^ "Twin Towns". www.amazingdusseldorf.com. http://www.amazingdusseldorf.com/community-local/people/twin-towns.html. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
  11. ^ "Sister Cities of Manila". © 2008-2009 City Government of Manila. http://www.manila.gov.ph/localgovt.htm#sistercities. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
  12. ^ Portsmouth City Council. Twinning. Diaksès 22 Agustus 2007.
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