Kalium nitrat

Saka Wikipédia Jawa, bauwarna mardika basa Jawa
Menyang navigasi Menyang panggolèkan
Cithakan:Chembox MagSusCithakan:Chembox RefractIndexCithakan:Chembox LD50
Potassium nitrate[1]
Gambar
Gambar
Gambar
Identifikasi
Nomor CAS [7757-79-1]
PubChem 24434
Nomer EINECS 231-818-8
KEGG D02051
Nomer RTECS TT3700000
SMILES [K+].[O-][N+]([O-])=O
InChI 1/K.NO3/c;2-1(3)4/q+1;-1
Sifat
Rumus molekul KNO3
Massa molar 101.1032 g/mol
Panampilan white solid
Ambu odorless
Densitas 2.109 g/cm3 (16 °C)
Titik leleh

334 °C, 607 K, 633 °F

Titik umob

400 °C, 673 K, 752 °F

Kelarutan dalam air 133 g/1000 g water (0 °C)
316 g/1000 g water (20 °C)
383 g/1000 g water (25 °C)
2439 g/1000 g water (100 °C)[3]
Kelarutan slightly soluble in ethanol
soluble in glycerol, ammonia
Basicity (pKb) 15.3[4]
Struktur
Struktur kristal Orthorhombic, Aragonite
Termokimia
Entalpi
pambentukan
standar
fHo298)
-494.00 kJ/mol
Kapasitas panas, C {{{HeactCapacity}}}
Bahaya
Bebaya utama Oxidant, harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed on skin. Causes irritation to skin and eye area.
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
1
0
 
Titik murub non-flammable (oxidizer)
Senyawa kagandhèng
Anion liyané Potassium nitrite
Kation liyané Lithium nitrate
Sodium nitrate
Rubidium nitrate
Caesium nitrate
Kejaba ditélakaké suwaliké, data ing ndhuwur kanggo
ing suhu lan tekanan standar (25°C, 100 kPa)

Sangkalan lan referensi

Sampel kalium nitrat

Kalium nitrat ya iku senyawa kimia kanthi rumus kimia KNO3 . Iki minangka uyah ion saka ion kalium K+ lan ion nitrat NO3-, mula nitrat logam alkali. Kasedhiya ing alam minangka mineral, nitriter (utawa nitre ing Inggris). [6] Iki minangka sumber nitrogén, lan nitrogén dijenengi miturut niter. Kalium nitrat minangka salah sawijining senyawa sing ngandung nitrogén sing sacara kolektif diarani saltpetre (utawa saltpeter ing Amerika Utara).[6]

Efesus utama kalium nitrat yaiku ing pupuk, ngilangi puntung wit , propelan roket lan kembang api. Iki minangka salah sawijining unsur utama bubuk mesiu (bubuk ireng). [7] Ing daging olahan, kalium nitrat ditanggepi karo hemoglobin lan myoglobin sing ngasilaké warna biru.[8]

Ètimologi[besut | besut sumber]

Amarga panggunaan lan produksi awal lan global, kalium nitrat, duwé akèh jeneng. Ing tembung Ibrani lan Mesir sing diarani duwé konsonan n-t-r, nuduhaké kemungkinan ana gegayutan ing nitron Yunani, saka Latin dadi nitrum utawa nitrium. Perancis kuna, tembung niter lan tembung nitre ing Inggris Tengah. Ing abad kaping 15, wong Eropa ngarani saltpetre [9] lan mengko minangka nitrat potash, amarga kimia senyawa kasebut luwih dingerteni. Ing Arab disebut iku "salju China " ( Arab: ثلج الصين‎‎ thalj al-ṣīn ). Zat iki disebut "uyah Cina" dening Iran / Persia [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] utawa "uyah saka uyah rawa-rawa China" ( Pèrsi: نمک شوره چينی‎‎ namak shūra chīnī ). [15] [16]

Guna kalium nitrat[besut | besut sumber]

Kristal kalium nitrat

Oksidator[besut | besut sumber]

Panggunaan kalium nitrat sing paling misuwur bisa uga minangka oksidator ing bubuk ireng. Wiwit jaman kuna nganti pungkasan taun 1880-an, bubuk ireng nyedhiyakaké kekuwatan kanggo kabeh senjata api ing donya. Sawisé wektu kasebut, senjata cilik lan artileri gedhe wiwit gumantung karo bahan peledhak, bubuk tanpa asap. bubuk ireng isih digunakaké saiki ing motor roket bubuk ireng, nanging uga digabung karo bahan bakar liyané kaya gula ing "permen rokèt". Iki uga digunakaké ing kembang api kayata bom asap. [17] Iki uga ditambahaké ing rokok kanggo njaga kobongan tembakau [18] lan digunakaké kanggo mesthekaké kobong kartrid kertas kanggo revolver tutup lan bal. [19] iki uga bisa digawé panas nganti pirang-pirang atus derajat kanggo digunakaké kanggo niter bluing, sing kurang awét tinimbang oksidasi proteksi liyané, nanging ngidini pewarnaan bagéan-bagéan baja sing khusus lan asring apik, kayata sekrup, pin, lan bagéan cilik liyané senjata api.

Pangolahan daging[besut | besut sumber]

Kalium nitrat minangka bahan umum saka daging asin wiwit jaman kuna [20] utawa Abad Pertengahan. [21] Adopsi panggunaan nitrat sing nyebar luwih anyar lan ana gandhengané karo pangolahan pangolahan daging kanthi gedhé. [22] Panggunaan kalium nitrat umume dihentikan amarga asil alon lan ora konsisten dibandhingaké karo senyawa natrium nitrit kayata "bubuk Prague" utawa "uyah jambon". Sanajan mangkono, kalium nitrat isih digunakaké ing sawétara pangaplikasian panganan, kayata salami, ham sing wis garing, charcuterie, lan (ing sawétara negara) ing banyu asin digunakaké kanggo nggawé daging sapi kornet (kadhang-bareng karo natrium nitrit ). [23] Nalika digunakaké minangka aditif panganan ing Uni Eropa, [24] senyawa kasebut diarani E252 ; iki uga disétujoni kanggo digunakaké minangka aditif panganan ing Amerika Serikat [25] lan Australia lan Selandia Baru [26] (sing didaftar ing nomer INS 252).

Pupuk[besut | besut sumber]

Kalium nitrat digunakaké ing pupuk minangka sumber nitrogén lan kalium - loro makronutrien kanggo tanduran. Yèn digunakaké dhéwéan, rating NPK yaiku 13-0-44. [27] [28]

Farmakologi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Digunakaké ing sawétara pasta untu kanggo untu sensitif. [29] Bubar iki, panggunaan kalium nitrat ing pasta untu kanggo ngobati untu sensitif wis saya tambah. [30] [31]
  • Digunakaké kanthi historis kanggo ngobati panandhang asma. [32] Digunakaké ing sawétara pasta untu kanggo ngatasi gejala asma. [33]
  • Digunakaké ing Thailand minangka bahan utama ing tablet ginjel kanggo ngatasi gejala cystitis, pyelitis lan urethritis. [34]
  • Nglawan tekanan getih dhuwur lan sapisan digunakaké minangka hipotensi. [35]

Paripustaka[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Cithakan:GESTIS
  2. Gustafson, A. F. (1949). Handbook of Fertilizers - Their Sources, Make-Up, Effects, And Use. p. 25. ISBN 9781473384521. Diarsip saka asliné ing 2017-02-17.
  3. B. J. Kosanke; B. Sturman; K. Kosanke; I. von Maltitz; T. Shimizu; M. A. Wilson; N. Kubota; C. Jennings-White; D. Chapman (2004). "2". Pyrotechnic Chemistry. Journal of Pyrotechnics. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-889526-15-7. Diarsip saka asliné ing 2016-05-05.
  4. Kolthoff, Treatise on Analytical Chemistry, New York, Interscience Encyclopedia, Inc., 1959.
  5. chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov Archived 2014-08-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. a b Shorter Oxford English dictionary (6th ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 9780199206872.
  7. Lauer, Klaus (1991). "The history of nitrite in human nutrition: A contribution from German cookery books". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 44 (3): 261–264. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(91)90037-a. ISSN 0895-4356. PMID 1999685.
  8. Haldane, J. (1901). "The Red Colour of Salted Meat". The Journal of Hygiene. 1 (1): 115–122. doi:10.1017/S0022172400000097. ISSN 0022-1724. PMC 2235964. PMID 20474105.
  9. Spencer, Dan (2013). Saltpeter:The Mother of Gunpowder. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 9780199695751.
  10. Peter Watson (2006). Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud. HarperCollins. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-06-093564-1. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2015-10-17. The first use of a metal tube in this context was made around 1280 in the wars between the Song and the Mongols, where a new term, chong, was invented to describe the new horror...Like paper, it reached the West via the Muslims, in this case the writings of the Andalusian botanist Ibn al-Baytar, who died in Damascus in 1248. The Arabic term for saltpetre is 'Chinese snow' while the Persian usage is 'Chinese salt'.28
  11. Cathal J. Nolan (2006). The age of wars of religion, 1000–1650: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization. Volume 1 of Greenwood encyclopedias of modern world wars. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-313-33733-8. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2014-01-01. Dibukak ing 2011-11-28. In either case, there is linguistic evidence of Chinese origins of the technology: in Damascus, Arabs called the saltpeter used in making gunpowder "Chinese snow," while in Iran it was called "Chinese salt." Whatever the migratory route
  12. Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg (1970). Artillery: its origin, heyday, and decline. Archon Books. p. 123. ISBN 9780208010407. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2015-09-19. The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese Snow and employed it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets.
  13. Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg (1963). English artillery, 1326–1716: being the history of artillery in this country prior to the formation of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. Royal Artillery Institution. p. 42. The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese Snow and employed it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets.
  14. Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg (1993). Clubs to cannon: warfare and weapons before the introduction of gunpowder (reprint ed.). Barnes & Noble Books. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-56619-364-1. Dibukak ing 2011-11-28. The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese snow and used it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets.
  15. Partington, J. R. (1960). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder (illustrated, reprint ed.). JHU Press. p. 335. ISBN 978-0801859540. Dibukak ing 2014-11-21.
  16. Needham, Joseph; Yu, Ping-Yu (1980). Needham, Joseph (ed.). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 4, Spagyrical Discovery and Invention: Apparatus, Theories and Gifts. Volume 5. Contributors Joseph Needham, Lu Gwei-Djen, Nathan Sivin (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0521085731. Dibukak ing 2014-11-21.
  17. Amthyst Galleries, Inc Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty..
  18. Inorganic Additives for the Improvement of Tobacco Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty., TobaccoDocuments.org
  19. Kirst, W.J. (1983). Self Consuming Paper Cartridges for the Percussion Revolver. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Northwest Development Co.
  20. Binkerd, E. F; Kolari, O. E (1975-01-01). "The history and use of nitrate and nitrite in the curing of meat". Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. 13 (6): 655–661. doi:10.1016/0015-6264(75)90157-1. ISSN 0015-6264. PMID 1107192.
  21. "Meat Science", University of Wisconsin. uwex.edu.
  22. Lauer, Klaus (1991). "The history of nitrite in human nutrition: A contribution from German cookery books". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 44 (3): 261–264. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(91)90037-a. ISSN 0895-4356. PMID 1999685.
  23. Corned Beef Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty., Food Network
  24. UK Food Standards Agency: "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2010-10-07. Dibukak ing 2011-10-27.
  25. US Food and Drug Administration: "Listing of Food Additives Status Part II". Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2011-11-08. Dibukak ing 2011-10-27.
  26. Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code "Standard 1.2.4 – Labelling of ingredients". Dibukak ing 2011-10-27.
  27. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-896: N-P-K Fertilizers Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty.
  28. Hall, William L; Robarge, Wayne P; Meeting, American Chemical Society (2004). Environmental Impact of Fertilizer on Soil and Water. p. 40. ISBN 9780841238114. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2018-01-27.
  29. "Sensodyne Toothpaste for Sensitive Teeth". 2008-08-03. Diarsip saka sing asli ing August 7, 2007. Dibukak ing 2008-08-03.
  30. Enomoto, K; et al. (2003). "The Effect of Potassium Nitrate and Silica Dentifrice in the Surface of Dentin". Japanese Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 46 (2): 240–247. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2010-01-11.
  31. R. Orchardson; D. G. Gillam (2006). "Managing dentin hypersensitivity" (PDF). Journal of the American Dental Association. 137 (7): 990–8, quiz 1028–9. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0321. PMID 16803826. Diarsip saka sing asli (PDF) ing 2013-07-29.
  32. Orville Harry Brown (1917). Asthma, presenting an exposition of the nonpassive expiration theory. C.V. Mosby company. p. 277.
  33. Joe Graedon (May 15, 2010). "'Sensitive' toothpaste may help asthma". The Chicago Tribune. Diarsip saka sing asli ing September 16, 2011. Dibukak ing June 18, 2012.
  34. LOCAL MANUFACTURED DRUG REGISTRATION FOR HUMAN (COMBINE)[pranala mati]. fda.moph.go.th
  35. Reichert ET. (1880). "On the physiological action of potassium nitrite". Am. J. Med. Sci. 80: 158–180. doi:10.1097/00000441-188007000-00011.