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Gandum
Triticum aestivum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-274.jpg
Triticum aestivum, jenis gandum yang paling umum ditanam.
Klasifikasi ngèlmiah
Karajan: Plantae
Dhivisi: Magnoliophyta
Klas: Liliopsida
Ordho: Poales
Famili: Poaceae
Génus: Triticum
L.
Spesies
T. aestivum
T. aethiopicum
T. araraticum
T. boeoticum
T. carthlicum
T. compactum
T. dicoccoides
T. dicoccon
T. durum
T. ispahanicum
T. karamyschevii
T. macha
T. militinae
T. monococcum
T. polonicum
T. spelta
T. sphaerococcum
T. timopheevii
T. turanicum
T. turgidum
T. urartu
T. vavilovii
T. zhukovskyi
Referensi:
  ITIS 42236 2002-09-22

Gandum minangka suket sing akeh ditandur kanggo winih, gabah sereal sing dadi panganan pokok ing saindenging jagad. [1] [2] [3] Akeh jinis gandum kalebu genus Triticum ; sing ditandur umume yaiku gandum umume ( T. estivum ). Cathetan arkeologi nuduhake manawa gandum pisanan dibudidayakake ing wilayah Fertile Crescent udakara taun 9600 SM. Secara botani, kernel gandum minangka jinis buah sing diarani caryopsis . Gandum minangka sumber karbohidrat sing penting. [4] Secara global, iki minangka sumber protein nabati ing panganan manungsa, kanthi kandhungan protein udakara 13%, sing cukup dhuwur dibandhingake sereal utama liyane [5] nanging kualitas protein cukup murah kanggo nyuplai asam amino esensial . [6] [7] Yen dipangan minangka gandum, gandum minangka sumber macem-macem nutrisi lan serat panganan .

Gandum ditandur ing lahan sing luwih akeh tinimbang panen panganan liyane (220,4 yuta hektar, 2014). [8] Perdagangan gandum ing donya luwih gedhe tinimbang kabeh tanduran liyane sing digabung. [9] Ing 2017, produksi gandum ing donya yaiku 772 yuta ton, kanthi ramalan produksi ing taun 2019 yaiku 766 yuta ton, [10] sereal nomer loro sing paling diproduksi sawise jagung . [11] Wiwit taun 1960, produksi gandum lan tanduran gandum liyane global wis kaping telu lan dikarepake bakal tuwuh luwih dawa ing pertengahan abad kaping 21 . [12] Dikarepake global kanggo gandum mundak amarga unik viscoelastic lan situs adhesive saka lem protèin, kang nggampangake produksi panganan olahan, kang konsumsi iki nambah minangka asil saka proses industrialization donya lan westernization saka diet . [13] [14] Ing bagean cilik saka populasi umume, gluten - bagean utama protein gandum - bisa nyebabake penyakit celiac, sensitivitas lem noncoeliac, ataxia lem, lan herpetiformis dermatitis .


[15]

Spikelets of a hulled wheat, einkorn
Wheat, hard red winter
Ajiné nutrisi saben 100 g (3.5 oz)
Ènergi1,368 kJ (327 kkal)
71.18 g
Gula0.41
Serat panganan12.2 g
1.54 g
12.61 g
Vitamin
Tiamin (B1)
(33%)
0.383 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(10%)
0.115 mg
Niasin (B3)
(36%)
5.464 mg
Asem pantotènik (B5)
(19%)
0.954 mg
Vitamin B6
(23%)
0.3 mg
Folat (B9)
(10%)
38 μg
Colin
(6%)
31.2 mg
Vitamin É
(7%)
1.01 mg
Vitamin K
(2%)
1.9 μg
Mineral
Kalsium
(3%)
29 mg
Wesi
(25%)
3.19 mg
Magnésium
(35%)
126 mg
Mangan
(190%)
3.985 mg
Fosforus
(41%)
288 mg
Potasium
(8%)
363 mg
Sodhium
(0%)
2 mg
Sèng
(28%)
2.65 mg
Komponèn liyané
Banyu13.1 g
Selenium70.7 µg

Persèntase sadarma pangira-ira sarana pamrayoga ing AS tumrap wong diwasa.
Sumber: Sasana Dhata Gizi USDA

Referensi[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Shewry, Peter R (2009), "Wheat", Journal of Experimental Botany, 60 (6), pp. 1537–53, doi:10.1093/jxb/erp058, PMID 19386614
  2. James D. Mauseth (2014). Botany. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4496-4884-8. Perhaps the simplest of fruits are those of grasses (all cereals such as corn and wheat)...These fruits are caryopses.
  3. Belderok, Robert 'Bob'; Mesdag, Hans; Donner, Dingena A (2000), Bread-Making Quality of Wheat, Springer, p. 3, ISBN 978-0-7923-6383-5
  4. Shewry PR, Hey SJ (2015). "Review: The contribution of wheat to human diet and health". Food and Energy Security. 4 (3): 178–202. doi:10.1002/fes3.64. PMC 4998136. PMID 27610232.
  5. European Community, Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) (24 February 2016). "Genetic markers signal increased crop productivity potential". Dibukak ing 1 June 2017.
  6. "Nutritional quality of cereals". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Dibukak ing 1 June 2017.
  7. Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013. ISBN 978-92-5-107417-6. Dibukak ing 1 June 2017.
  8. "Crops/World Total/Wheat/Area Harvested/2014 (pick list)". United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2014. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 6 September 2015. Dibukak ing 8 December 2016.
  9. Curtis; Rajaraman; MacPherson (2002). "Bread Wheat". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  10. "World food situation: FAO cereal supply and demand brief". Rome, Italy: United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization. 10 March 2019. Dibukak ing 14 December 2016.
  11. "Crops/World Total/Wheat/Production Quantity/2014 (pick list)". United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2014. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 6 September 2015. Dibukak ing 8 December 2016.
  12. Godfray, H.C.; Beddington, J. R.; Crute, I. R.; Haddad, L; Lawrence, D; Muir, J. F.; Pretty, J; Robinson, S; Thomas, S. M. (2010). "Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people". Science. 327 (5967): 812–8. Bibcode:2010Sci...327..812G. doi:10.1126/science.1185383. PMID 20110467.
  13. Shewry PR, Hey SJ (2015). "Review: The contribution of wheat to human diet and health". Food and Energy Security. 4 (3): 178–202. doi:10.1002/fes3.64. PMC 4998136. PMID 27610232.
  14. "Wheat-gluten uses and industry needs". Trends in Food Science & Technology (Review). 17 (2): 82–90. 2006. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2005.10.003.
  15. "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms". Gut. 62 (1): 43–52. January 2013. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. PMC 3440559. PMID 22345659.