Wong Kurdhi

Saka Wikipédia Jawa, bauwarna bébas abasa Jawa
Dwaja Roj sing awujud piringan srengéngé emas

Para Kurdhi (Kurdish: کوردKurd) uga karan wong-wong Kurdhi (Kurdish: گەلێ کوردیGelê Kurdî) iku sawijining bebrayan[1] ing Wétan Tengah, akèh-akèhé ndunungi laladan sing watesan, nyrambahi pérangan Wétan lan Kidul-Wétané Turki (Kurdhistan Lor), Iran Kulon (Wétan utawa Kurdhistan Irania), Irak (Kidul utawa Kurdhistan Irak), lan Suriah Lor (Kurdhistan Kulon utawa Rojava).[2] Wong-wong Kurdhi budayané lan basané caket gegandhèngané karo wong-wong Irania [3][4][5][6]Barbara A. West (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. k. 518. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7. </ref> lan uga nduwé tanggalan sing tanggalé saka 612 sadurungé Masèhi, nalika Medes neluk Nineveh, kutha krajané Assyria.[7] Pangakuan minangka turunan saka Median ana ing lagu kabangsan Kurdhi: "awakdhèwè anak turuné Medes lan Kai Khosrow ".[8] Basa Kurdhi wujud sawijining subkelompoking basa-basa Irania Lor-Kulon.[9][10]

Bangsa Kurdhi, ing sakurebing langit, ana watara 30–32 yuta, bokmenawa nganti 37 yuta,[11] kanthi mayoritas dedunung ana ing Asia Kulon; nanging ana masarakat diaspora Kurdhi sing cukup akèh ana ing kutha-kutha ing Turki Kulon, mligi Istanbul. Sawijining diaspora Kurdhi uga ngembang ana ing nagara-nagara Kulon, kususé ing Jerman. Bangsa Kurdhi iku minangka cacah jiwa mayoritas ana ing wewengkon swatantraning Kurdhistan Irak, lan ing wewengkon swatantraning Rojava, sarta minangka golongan minoritas sing gatèn ing nagara tangga Turki lan Iran, papané obahan nasionalis Kurdhi ngupadi swatantra lan hak-hak kabudayan.

Basa[besut | besut sumber]

Péta basa Kurdhi (2007)
Wewengkon sing dipanggoni para Kurdhi ing Wétan Tengah (1992)

Basa Kurdhi (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) ngrujuk marang sawenèh dhialèk sing dituturaké déning para Kurdhi.[9] Basa kuwi akèh dituturaké ing Iran, Irak, Suriah, lan Turki sing wujud Kurdhistan.[12] Basa Kurdhi nduwé status sing resmi minangka basa kabangsan bebarengan karo basa Arab, ing Iran minangka basa dhaèrah, lan ing Armenia minangka basa minoritas.

Basa Kurdhi kalebu ing sub-kelompoking basa Irania Lor-Kulon, sing kalebu ing basa Indo-Irania saka kulawarga basa Indo-Éropah.

Akèh-akèhé wong Kurdhi nuturaké rong basa utawa sawenèh basa, nuturaké basa kabangsan nagara asalé, kaya déne basa Arab, basa Pérsi, lan basa Turki, minangka basa kaloro bebarengan karo basa asliné, ya iku basa Kurdhi, déné ing masarakat diaspora, asring nuturaké telung utawa punjul telung basa.

Cacah jiwa[besut | besut sumber]

Gunggungé wong Kurdhi sing ndunungi wewengkon Asia Kidul-kulon diwatara ngancik 30 yuta, kanthi sak yuta nganti rong yuta dadi bagéyan saka diaspora. Wong Kurdi sumebar ana saindengé Turki kanthi presèntase 18% nganti 20%,[13] bokmenawa uga ngancik 25%;[14] 15 nganti 20% ing Irak;[13] 10% ing Iran;[13] lan 9% ing Suriah.[13][15] Wong Kurdhi uga dadi cacah jiwa mayoritas ana ing sawenèh papan, ya iku ing Kurdistan Turki, Kurdistan Irak, Kurdistan Iran lan Kurdistan Suriah. Wong Kurdi minangka golongan ètnis ing Asia Kulon kanthi cacah jiwa paling akèh sakwisé wong Arab, wong Pèrsi, lan wong Turki.

Gunggung cacah jiwané wong Kurdhi ing taun 1991 nyandhak 22,5 yuta, kanthi 48% wongé manggon ana Turki, 18% ing Irak, 24% ing Iran, lan 4% ing Suriah.[16]

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. ^ Killing of Iraq Kurds 'genocide', BBC, "The Dutch court said it considered "legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets requirement under Genocide Conventions as an ethnic group"."
  2. ^ Kurdish Awakening: Nation Building in a Fragmented Homeland, (2014), by Ofra Bengio, University of Texas Press
  3. ^ John A. Shoup III (17 October 2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. k. 159. ISBN 978-1-59884-363-7. 
  4. ^ "Kurds". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Encyclopedia.com. 2014. Dijupuk 29 December 2014. 
  5. ^ Izady, Mehrdad R. (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Taylor & Francis. k. 198. ISBN 978-0-8448-1727-9. 
  6. ^ Bois, T.; Minorsky, V.; MacKenzie, D. N. (2009). "Kurds, Kurdistan". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, T.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. Encyclopaedia Islamica. Brill. The Kurds, an Iranian people of the Near East, live at the junction of more or less laicised Turkey."... We thus find that about the period of the Arab conquest a single ethnic term Kurd (plur. Akrād) was beginning to be applied to an amalgamation of Iranian or iranicised tribes. ... The classification of the Kurds among the Iranian nations is based mainly on linguistic and historical data and does not prejudice the fact there is a complexity of ethnical elements incorporated in them. 
  7. ^ Frye, Richard Nelson. "IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (1) A General Survey". Encyclopædia Iranica. Dijupuk 2016-03-04. 
  8. ^ Ofra Bengio (15 November 2014). Kurdish Awakening: Nation Building in a Fragmented Homeland. University of Texas Press. k. 87. ISBN 978-0-292-75813-1. 
  9. ^ a b Paul, Ludwig (2008). "Kurdish Language". Encyclopædia Iranica. Dijupuk 2 December 2011. 
  10. ^ D. N. MacKenzie (1961). "The Origins of Kurdish". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68–86. 
  11. ^ Based on arithmetic from World Factbook and other sources cited herein: A Near Eastern population of 28–30 million, plus approximately 2 million diaspora gives 30–32 million.
  12. ^ Geographic distribution of Kurdish and other Iranic languages
  13. ^ a b c d World Factbook (ed. Online). Langley, Virginia: US Central Intelligence Agency. 2015. ISSN 1553-8133. Dijupuk 2 August 2015.  A rough estimate in this edition has populations of 14.3 million in Turkey, 8.2 million in Iran, about 5.6 to 7.4 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to approximately 28–30 million Kurds in Kurdistan or adjacient regions. CIA estimates are as of Agustus 2015 – Turkey: Kurdish 18%, of 81.6 million; Iran: Kurd 10%, of 81.82 million; Iraq: Kurdish 15%-20%, of 37.01 million, Syria: Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%, of 17.01 million.
  14. ^ Mackey, Sandra (2002). The Reckoning: Iraq and the Legacy of Saddam. W.W. Norton and Co. k. 350. As much as 25% of Turkey is Kurdish  This would raise the population estimate by about 5 million.[mbuh-mbuhan ]
  15. ^ Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (9 March 2012). "Background Note: Syria". State.gov. Washington, DC: US State Department. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 17 October 2012. Dijupuk 2 August 2015.  The CIA World Factbook reports all non-Arabs make up 9.7% of the Syrian population, but does not break out the Kurdish figure separately. However, this State Dept. source provides a figure of 9%. As of Agustus 2015, the current document at this state.gov URL no longer provides such ethnic group data.
  16. ^ Hassanpour, Amir (7 November 1995). "A Stateless Nation's Quest for Sovereignty in the Sky". Concordia University. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 20 August 2007. Dijupuk 3 August 2015.  Paper presented at the Freie Universitat Berlin. For the figure, cites: McDowall, David (1992). "The Kurds: A Nation Denied". London: Minority Rights Group.