Perang Stalingrad

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Koordinat: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.7°N 44.517°E / 48.7; 44.517

Perang Stalingrad
Bagéan saka Front Wétan saka Perang Donya II
German pows stalingrad 1943.jpg
Tentara Jerman digiring nuju kamp tawanan Sovyèt, ngliwati reruntuhan gudhang beras ing Stalingrad, Februari 1943
Tanggal 21 Agustus 19422 Februari 1943[1]1
Papan Stalingrad, Uni Sovyèt
Asil Kamenangan Sovyèt
Pihak sing kalibat
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Jerman
Flag of Romania.png Rumania
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Italia
Flag of Hungary (1920–1946).svg Hungaria
Flag of Kroasia Kroasia[2]
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Uni Sovyèt
Komandhan
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Adolf Hitler

Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Friedrich von Paulus #
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Erich von Manstein
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Hermann Hoth
Flag of Romania.png Petre Dumitrescu
Flag of Romania.png Constantin Constantinescu
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Italo Garibaldi
Flag of Hungary (1920–1946).svg Gusztáv Vitéz Jány

Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Josef Stalin

Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Vasily Chuikov
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Aleksandr Vasilevsky
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Georgy Zhukov
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Semyon Timoshenko
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Konstantin Rokossovsky
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Rodion Malinovsky
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Andrei Yeremenko

Kakuwatan
Grup Tentara B:
Tentara Kaenem Jerman #
Grup Panser Kapapat Jerman
Tentara Katelu Rumania
Tentara Kapapat Rumania
Tentara Kawolu Italia
Tentara Kaloro Hungaria

Rincèn:
270.000 wong
3.000 artileri
500 tank
600 montor mabur, 1.600 (pertengahan September, Luftflotte 4)[3][4]

Nalika serangan walik Sovyèt:
1.011.000 wong
10.250 artileri
675 tank
732 (402 operasional) montor mabur[3][5]Rp. 87
Front Stalingrad
Front Kidul-kulon
Front Don
Rincèn:
187.000 wong
2.200 artileri
400 tank
300 montor mabur[4]

Nalika serangan walik Sovyètt: 1.103.000 wong
15.501 artileri
1.463 tank
1.115 montor mabur[3]
Cacahé korban
750,000 mati utawa tatu
91.000 kecekel
Montor mabur: 900 (klebu 274 pangangkut lan 165 bomber digunakaké minangka montor mabur angkut)[4]
Total: 841,000 korban
478.741 mati utawa ilang
650.878 tatu lan lara
40.000+ warga sipil mati
4.341 tank
15.728 gegaman lan mortir
2.769 montor mabur perang [6]
Total: 1.129.619 korban
1 Perang Stalingrad: Kamenangan Sovyèt, luwih 11.000 pasukan Poros nerusaké perang tekan awal Maret 1943.

Perang Stalingrad, sing kedadéyan tanggal 21 Agustus 1942 nganti tekan 2 Februari 1943, arupa perang sengit antarané Jerman lan sekutuné nglawan Uni Sovyèt, ngrebutaké kutha Stalingrad (sing saiki jenengé Volgograd), jroning Perang Donya II. Perang iki dianggep minangka titik walik Perang Donya II, lan minangka perang paling ngemu getih sasuwéné sajarah, ing endi 1,5 yuta wong luwih mati saka rong pihak. Pihak leloroné perang kanthi brutal lan ora perduli korban warga sipil. Perang iki kapérang sdadi sawetara tahap, yaiku pangepungan Jerman marang Stalingrad, perang jroning kutha, serangan walik Sovyèt, sarta pangepungan lan pangremukan kakuwatan-kakuwatan Poros ing sakupengé Stalingrad, sing dipandhégani Tentara Kaenem Jerman[7][8].

Latar Wuri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nalika sasi Juni 1942, Tentara Jerman (Wehrmacht) nglancaraké kampanye mangsa panas kapindhoné marang Uni Sovyèt, sing diarani Operation Blau (Operasi Biru). Sadurungé jroning operasi Barbarossa[9] Wehrmacht diusir ing lawang gerbang Moskow nalika mangsa adhem 1941-1942. Operasi Biru diarahaké menyang Rusia kidul kanthi tujuan ngrebut ladhang lenga ing Baku, Azerbaijan, lan mbukak dalan kanggo nguwasani ladhang-ladhang lenga ing Wétan Tengah. Pasukan panyerbu Jerman dibagi rong kakuwatan, Grup Tentara A nyerbu Kaukasus lan Grup Tentara B tumuju kali Volga lan kutha Stalingrad.

Wigatiné Stalingrad[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mula bukané, Tentara Abang Sovyèt milih gerak mundur kanggo gawé jalur logistik wadyabala Jerman ketètèran kanthi mupangataké wiyaré wilayah Uni Sovyèt. Nanging sabanjuré Stalin mréntahaké wadyabalané kanggo njaga ing Stalingrad, sing sacara harfiah tegesé "kutha Stalin". Saliyané amarga nyandhang jeneng Stalin, kutha Stalingrad uga wigati amarga arupa kutha indhustri paling gedhé ing pinggir kali Volga (jalur transportasi wigati tumuju Laut Kaspia). Karebuté Stalingrad déning tangan Jerman bakal nggampangaké gerak maju wadyabala Jerman tumuju Kaukasus, sing duwé cadhangan lenga gedhé, sing banget dibutuhaké déning Jerman.

Lakuné perang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Miturut prakiran, watara patang puluh èwu tentara saka kaloro pihak mati saben dinané. Fuhrer Adolf Hitler mréntahaké wadyabalané supaya jroning kahanan apa waé, kutha Stalingrad kudu direbut. Akibaté wadyabala Jerman perang toh pati kanggo ngrebut kutha kuwi. Nanging, rakyat lan tentara ing kutha Stalingrad uga nganakaké perlawanan sing kuwat banget saéngga wadyabala Nazi bisa diadhang.

Sauntara wadyabalané kajebak jroning perang mati-urip ing Stalingrad, Komandho Paling Dhuwur Jerman ora ngrumangsani yèn Stalin wis nglumpukaké bala bantuan kanggo ngancuraké wadyabala Jerman jroning sawijining kampanye mangsa adhem. Serangan walesan Uni Sovyèt dilancaraké sasi November 1942 nalika salju wiwit mudhun. Serangan mau kanthi cepet nggulung wadyabala Italia, Rumania, lan Hungaria sing ngreksa garis mburi Angkatan Dharat kaping-6 Jerman. Akibaté, wadyabala Jerman sing operasi ing Stalingrad kakepung.

Sejatiné, Jerman duwé kesempatan kanggo narik mundur wadyabalané sadurungé Tentara Abang ngrampungaké kepungané. Nanging, Hitler kukuh supaya wadyabalané tetep njaga ing Stalingrad lan mréntahaké Luftwaffe (Angkatan Udhara Jerman) kanggo ngirimaké bekel kanggo wadyabala mau. Nanging, mangsa adhem sing ganas ngalangi usaha mau saéngga bantuan sing dikirimaké ora cukup kanggo mènèhi pangan 330.000 prajurit Jerman lan sekutuné sing ana ing Stalingrad.

Sawijining usaha liya kanggo mbébasaké wadyabala Jerman sing kakepung yaiku kanthi ngirim Tentara Grup Don pimpinan Marsekal Erich von Manstein, salah siji ahli strategi Jerman sing pinter. Nanging, serangan mau kasil diendhegaké déning bala bantuan Sovyèt sing isih seger ing Kotelnikovo. Pungkasané, nalika diadhepaké marang kamungelan kakepung, von Manstein narik mundur wadyabalané lan ninggal kanca-kancané ing Stalingrad nunggu nasib.

Nalika tanggal 30 Januari 1943, Tentara Abang ing sangisoré pimpinan Marsekal Georgy Zhukov nglancaraké serangan umum menyang Stalingrad lan kanthi cepet nggulung wadyabala Poros sing wis kekeselen lan nandhang luwé lan penyakit. Rong dina sabanjuré, Marsekal Friedrich von Paulus lan 90.000 prajurité sing kasisa nyerah.

Para sajarawan mbiji, kakalahan Jerman ing Stalingrad arupa awal saka runtuhé Nazi. Tekan saiki perang iki dianggep minangka perang paling gedhé lan paling ngemu getih jroning sajarah manungsa. Cacahé korban jiwa diprakirakaké nganti 3 yuta jiwa.

Pirsani uga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Réferènsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cathetan sikil[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 6 Mei 2009.
  2. ^ Beevor98
  3. ^ a b c Kekuwatan nambah nganti 1.600 nalika awal September kanthi pambagéyan kekuwatan saka dhaérah Kuban lan Caucasus Kidul: Hayward 1998, kaca. 195
  4. ^ a b c Bergstrom2007
  5. ^ Bergstrom 2005
  6. ^ Россия и СССР в войнах ХХ века - Потери вооружённых сил, Rusia lan USSR nalika perang abad kaping-20 - Kakalahan kekuwatan angkatan bersenjata, Moskow, Olma-Press, 2001. jroning basa Inggris [1]
  7. ^ Blanning, T. C. W.. The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern Europe. pp. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=wCh0z7tl3o8C&pg=PP1&dq=#PPA219,M1.
  8. ^ Roberts, Geoffrey. Stalin's Wars. pp. 154. http://books.google.com/books?id=5GCFUqBRZ-QC&pg=PA154&dq=.
  9. ^ Shirer (1990), kaca. 864

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Baird, Jay W, (1969), Journal of Contemporary History, The Myth of Stalingrad, Sage Publications, Ltd.
  • Bernig,Jorg (1997). Eingekesselt: Die Schlacht um Stalingrad im deutschsprachigen Roman nach 1945: (German Life and Civilization Journal No 23), : Peter Lang publishers.
  • Clark, Alan (1965). Barbarossa: the Russian-German conflict OCLC 154155228
  • Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad New York: Penguin Books (paperback, ISBN 0-14-200000-0)
  • Dibold, Hans (2001) Doctor at Stalingrad. Littleton, CO: Aberdeen, (hardcover, ISBN 0-9713852-1-1).
  • Einsiedel, Heinrich Graf von; Wieder, Joachim. Stalingrad: Memories and Reassessments. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1998 (paperback, ISBN 1-85409-460-2); London: Cassell, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-304-36338-3).
  • Erickson, John. The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany, Vol. 1. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984 (hardcover, ISBN 0-86531-744-5); New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1985 (hardcover, ISBN 0-586-06408-7); New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1999 (paperback, ISBN 0-300-07812-9); London: Cassell, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-304-36541-6).
  • Golovanov, A.Ye.(2004) Dalnyaya bombardirovochnaya. Delta NB, Moscow.
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1994). No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II New York: Simon & Schuster (paperback, ISBN 0-671-64240-5)
  • Holl, Adelbert. (2005) An Infantryman In Stalingrad: From 24 September 1942 to 2 February 1943. Pymble, NSW, Australia: Leaping Horseman Books (hardcover, ISBN 0-9751076-1-5).
  • Hoyt, Edwin Palmer. (1999) 199 Days: The Battle for Stalingrad. New York: A Forge Book, (paperback, ISBN 0-312-86853-7).
  • Jones, Michael K. (2007) Stalingrad: How the Red Army Survived the German Onslaught. Drexel Hill, PA: Casemate, (hardcover, ISBN 978-1-932033-72-4)
  • MacDonald, John. (1986) Great Battles of World War II. London: Michael Joseph books.
  • Manstein, Erich von; Powell, Anthony G. (Ed. & Trans.); Liddell Hart, B. H. (Preface); Blumenson, Martin (Introduction) (2004). Lost Victories: The War Memoirs of Hitler's Most Brilliant General. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press. ISBN 0-7603-2054-3.
  • Mayer, SL & Taylor, AJP (1974). History of World War II. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-7064-0399-1 & ISBN 978-0-7064-0399-2
  • Raus, Erhard. Panzer Operations: The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941–1945, compiled and translated by Steven H. Newton. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2003 (hardcover, ISBN 0-306-81247-9); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0-306-81409-9).
  • Rayfield, Donald. Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. New York: Random House, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-375-50632-2); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0-375-75771-6).
  • Roberts, Geoffrey. (2002) Victory at Stalingrad: The Battle that Changed History. New York: Longman, (paperback, ISBN 0-582-77185-4).
  • Samsonov A.M., (1989) Stalingrad Battle, 4th ed. re-edited and added-to, Moscow, Science publishing. Basa Rusia: Самсонов А.М. Сталинградская битва, 4-е изд., испр. и доп.— М.: Наука, 1989. (in Russian)
  • Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Snyder, David R. (2005). Review in The Journal of Military History 69 (1), 265–266.
  • Taylor, A.J.P. and Mayer, S.L., eds. (1974) A History Of World War Two. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-7064-0399-1.

Pranala njaba[sunting | sunting sumber]

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