Seni Perang

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Seni Perang
Bamboo book - binding - UCR.jpg
The beginning of The Art of War, in a bamboo book from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor
Cina Padatan 孫子兵法
Cina Prasaja 孙子兵法
Hanyu Pinyin Sūnzĭ Bīngfǎ
Werdi literal Sun Tzu's Military Strategy
Zhongwen.svg Artikel iki ngandhut aksara Cina.
Tanpa dhukungan multibasa, manawa mung katon tandha pitakon, utawa kothak-kothak, lan dudu aksara Cina.

Seni Perang utawaThe Art of War iku sawijining ngèlmu perang sing asalé saka risalah militèr China kang tinulis rikala abad angka 6 sadurungé Masèhi déning Sun Tzu. Rinakit sajeroning 13 bab, saben bab ditujokaké marang salah siji aspek peperangan, lan wis suwé dianggep karya wigati lan mapan tumrap strategi lan taktik militèr.

Seni Perang' minangka buku kang tuwa dhéwé bab strategi militèr ing donya. Kayadéné tulisan bab matématika utawa sains, karya iki uga diangkah kanggo mratélakaké konsèp arupa rangkéan rumusan. Buku iki minangka buku kang wiwitan lan paling suksès bab strategi lan duwé prabawa kang ngédap-édapi tumrap pamikiran militèr ing donya, taktik bisnis lan liya-liyané. Sun Tzu minangka wong kang pisanan ngakoni wigatining panggonan (posisi) sajeroning strategi lan posisi diprabawai déning kondhisi obyèktif sajeroning lingkungan fisik.lan pikiran subyèktif saka aktor-aktor saingan ana ing lingkungan iku mau. Pemikiran Sun Tsu ya iku yèn strategi dudu rencana arupa pratélan kang kudu dilakoni, nanging mbutuhaké rèspon rikat lan cukup kanggo ngrubah kondhisi. Recana sajeroning lingkungan kang kakontrol, nanging ana ing sajeroning lingkungan kang kompetitif, rencana kompetitif jumbuh karo nggawé situasi kang ora ana siji-aijia sing nggawé rencana.

Buku iki pisanan diterjemahaké menyang basa Éropah ing taun 1782 déning wong Prancis, Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, lan mbokmanawa ana prabawané marang pemikiran Napoleon,[1] lan malah perencanaan Operation Desert Storm.[2][3] Para pamimpin kalebu Mao Zedong, Jenderal Pervez Musharraf, Vo Nguyen Giap, lan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur ngakoni yèn éntuk inspirasi saka buku iki.

The Art of War uga diterapaké, lan suksès ing donya strategi bisnis lan manajemen.[4][5]

Bab 13 Buku Seni Perang[besut | besut sumber]

Bab-bab ing buku pertalan Lionel Giles, 1910

  • I. Nggawé Rancangan
  • II. Maju Perang
  • III. Serangan kanthi Stratagem
  • IV. Disposisi Taktis
  • V. Tenaga
  • VI. Kalemahan lan kakuatan
  • VII. Manuver (Gerakan)
  • VIII. Werna-warna taktik
  • IX. Pasukan Mlaku (Jalan Kaki)
  • X. Lumahing Bumi
  • XI. Sangang situasi
  • XII. Serangan nganggo geni
  • XIII. Gunané telik sandi
 

Bab-bab ing buku pertalan Chow-Hou Wee, 2003

  • I. Detil Asesmen lan Rancangan (Chinese: 始計)
  • II. Maju Perang (Chinese: 作戰)
  • III. Serangan Strategis Attack (Chinese: 謀攻)
  • IV. Disposisi (Ngatur panggonan) Pasukan (Chinese: 軍行)
  • V. Kakuatan Pasukan (Chinese: 兵勢)
  • VI. Kalemahan lan kakuatan (Chinese: 虛實)
  • VII. Gerakan Militer (Chinese: 軍爭)
  • VIII. Variasi lan Adaptasi (Chinese: 九變)
  • IX. Gerakan Pasukan (Chinese: 行軍)
  • X. Lumahing Bumi (Chinese: 地形)
  • XI. Sangang medhan laga (Chinese: 九地)
  • XII. Serangan nganggo geni (Chinese: 火攻)
  • XIII. Intelijèn lan Telik Sandi (Chinese: 用間)


Cuplikan Kawentar[besut | besut sumber]

  • Versi saka buku Bab 3:
    • 故曰:知彼知己,百戰不殆;不知彼而知己,一勝一負;不知彼,不知己,每戰必敗
    • So it is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you will win a hundred times in a hundred battles.
      If you only know yourself, but not your opponent, you win one and lose the next.
      If you do not know yourself or your enemy, you will always lose.

Maknané: Yèn kowé mangertèni mungsuhmu lan awakmu dhéwé, kowé bakal menang ping satus saka satus peperangan.

  • Versi kang mèmper uga kerep disilih, mligi bab kamenangan tanpa tandhing, kaya pocapan iki:
    • (是故)百戰百勝,非善之善者也;不戰而屈人之兵,善之善者也
      Therefore One hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the most skillful. Seizing the enemy without fighting is the most skillful.

Maknané: Mulané, satus kamenangan ing satus perang dudu ngrupakaké kaprigelan sing paling dhuwur, kang paling prigel ya iku kang bisa naklukaké mungsuh tanpa perang.


Aplikasi Militèr[besut | besut sumber]

Ing sawetara nagaraAsia Wétan, seni perang dadi péranganing matèri ujian mlebu tentara. Werna-warna pertalan disediaaké. Sajeroning mangsa Sengoku era ing Jepang, sawijining daimyo arané Takeda Shingen (1521-1573) dikabarké mèh ora tau katon ing peperangan tanpa gumantung marang gaman, amarga nyinaoni seni perang.[6] Buku iki malah mènèhi inspirasi tumrap standar perangé kang misuwur: "Fūrinkazan" (Wind, Forest, Fire and Mountain), kang maknané: rikat kaya angin, sidhem kaya alas, wengis kaya geni lan tangguh kaya gunung.[7]

Penerjemah Samuel B. Griffith mratélaaké sajeroning bab "Sun Tzu lan Mao Tse-Tung" yèn The Art of War dikutip duwé prabawa marang anggitan Mao: On Guerilla Warfare, On the Protracted War, lan Strategic Problems of China's Revolutionary War lan kalebu pocapan Mao: Aja ngrèmèhaké paugeran sing ana ing bukuné Sun Tsu, ahli mlitèr kondhang saka jaman kuna, Kenali mungsuhmu lan kenali awakmu dhéwé lan kowé bakal bisa perang ping sèwu tanpa kalah. ("We must not belittle the saying in the book of Sun Wu Tzu, the great military expert of ancient China, 'Know your enemy and know yourself and you can fight a thousand battles without disaster.'")[8] Sajeroning Perang Vietnam, sawetara perwira Vietcong nyinaoni Seni Perang, lan dikabarké nganti apal kabèh isiné luar kepala.

Tentara Amérika Sarékat, liwat Sekolah Staf lan Komando, wis nganjurké supaya saben ékan nduwé pustaka kanggo njaga pendhidhikan kang lumintu bab seni perang. Buku Seni Perang kanthi mirunggan minangka conto sing kudu dipiara ing saben markas ékan, lan prawira pikèt wajib nggawé tulisan bab iku lan dipaparké marang para prawira.[9]

Aplikasi Kanggo Liyané Militèr[besut | besut sumber]

Wiwit taun 1980an, Seni Perang wis diterapké tumrap babagan saliyané donya militèr. Akèh-akèhé soal piyé carané ngayahi perang tanpa nganggo perang tandhing: bab iku mau mènèhi paugeran carané ngalahaké saingan utawa mungsuh nanging tanpa nganggo perang fisik. Mulané, banjur ana aplikasi kaya déné pituduh latihan bab upaya ningkatake daya saing tanpa nganggo peperangan.



Sumber[besut | besut sumber]

Running Press Miniature Edition™ of the 1994 Ralph D. Sawyer translation, printed in 2003
  • Sun Tzu translated by Dr Han Hiong Tan (2001). Sun Zi's The Art of War. H H Tan Medical P/L. ISBN 0-9580067-0-9. 
  • Sun Tzu translated by Filiquarian Publishing (2006). The Art of War. Filiquarian Publishing. ISBN 1-59986-977-2. 
  • Sun Tzu translated by the Denma translation group (2001). The Art of War: the Denma translation. Shambhala Classics. ISBN 1-57062-904-8. 
  • Sun Tzu translated by Lionel Giles (2002). The Art of War. Deodand Publishing. ISBN 0-9578868-7-X.  Text link (reprint; Giles translated the book in 1910)
  • Sun-Tzu translated by Roger Ames (1993). The Art of Warfare. Random House. ISBN 0-345-36239-X. , includes the Yin-ch'ueh-shan (Silver Sparrow Mountain) texts
  • Sun Tzu edited by James Clavell (1983). The Art of War. Delacorte Press. ISBN 0-385-29216-3.  This edition was published as a tie-in with Clavell's Asian Saga; it is essentially a re-working of the Lionel Giles translation.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Ralph D. Sawyer (1994). The Art of War. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 1-56619-297-8.  This translation tries to put The Art of War in its original context as a work of military strategy. It also includes a lengthy introduction and translations of some of the "bamboo strips" recovered from the shrine.
  • Sun Tzu translated by John Minford (2002). The Art of War. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03156-9.  This translation contains two parts. The first part is a completely unadorned, “raw�?version of the core text. The second part is that same text with Chinese commentators as well as others.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Yuan Shibing (1987). Sun Tzu's Art of War: The Modern Chinese Interpretation. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. ISBN 0-8069-6638-6. This book is written by General Tao Hanzhang, a senior officer in the People's Liberation Army. He is a senior advisor at the Beijing Institute for International Strategic Studies.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Thomas Cleary (1991). The Art Of War. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-537-9. 
  • Sun Tzu translated by J.H. Huang (1993). The Art of War: The New Translation. Quill William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-12400-3. This text is not a new interpretation of same texts that other editions are based on. Mr. Huang writes a new text based on manuscripts recently discovered in Linyi, China that predates all previous texts by as much as 1000 years.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Samuel B. Griffith (1963). The Art of War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-501476-6. This book is written by Samuel B. Griffith, Brigadier General (retired), U.S. Marine Corps., with a foreword by Sir B. H. Liddell Hart. "Wu Ch'i's Art of War" in six chapters is appended.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Donald G. Krause (1995). The Art of War For Executives. Berkely Publishing Group (Under Perigee Books. ISBN 0-399-51902-5. This book written by Donald Krause is interpreted for today's business reader.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Ralph D. Sawyer (1995). 100 Lessons In The Art of War. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0-7607-0998-X. This book by Ralph Sawyer is a culmination on various Chinese strategic texts.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Stephen F. Kaufman (1996). The Art of War: The Definitive Interpretation of Sun Tzu's Classic Book of Strategy. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3080-0.  Aimed mainly (but not exclusively) at the martial artist, Kaufman's rendition of Sun Tzu's work was written from the perspective of a Hanshi ("teacher of teachers").
  • Sun Tzu (1988-05). The Art of Strategy. translated by R. L. Wing. Seattle, Washington: Main Street Books. ISBN 0-385-23784-7.  Priksa gandra date ing: |date= (pitulung)
  • Sun Tzu (2003-01-14). The Art of War plus The Ancient Chinese Revealed. translated by Gary Gagliardi (ed. 1st hardcover ed., second printing). hillsborough, Washington: Clearbridge Publishing. ISBN 1-929194-42-0.  Winner of a 2003 Independent Publishers Book Award for Multicultural Nonfiction.[4]
  • Sun Tzu translated by Prof. Chow-Hou WEE (2003). Sun Zi Art of War: An Illustrated Translation with Asian Perspectives and Insights. Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd. ISBN 0-13-100137-X. 
  • Sun Tzu translated by Paul Brennan (2007). The Art of War for Martial Artists. Odos Books. 2007. ISBN 978-1-60402-416-6

Uga delengen[besut | besut sumber]

Cathetan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. ^ Samuel B. Griffith
  2. ^ Paul K. Van Riper. [1]
  3. ^ Grant T. Hammond. [2].
  4. ^ 'Art of War for Business Management Strategic Planning'
  5. ^ Floyd, Raymond E
  6. ^ Griffith, pp. 172-173 ISBN 0195014766
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ Griffith, p. 50 ISBN 0195014766
  9. ^ Army, U. S. (no date (1985?)). Military History and Professional Development. U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute. 85-CSI-21 85.  Priksa gandra date ing: |date= (pitulung) The Art of War is mentioned for each unit's acquisition on page 18, "Military History Libraries for Duty Personnel"

Pranala njaba[besut | besut sumber]

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