Wong Rohingya

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Wong Rohingya
Ruáingga
Displaced Rohingya people in Rakhine State (8280610831).jpg
Gunggung cacah jiwa
(1.547.778[1]–2.000.000+[2])
Tlatah mawa cacah jiwa akèh
Myanmar (Praja Rakhine), Banggaladésa, Malaysia, Népal, Pakistan, Arab Saudi, Thailand, Indonésia, India
 Myanmar1,3 yuta[3][4][5]
 Arab Saudi400.000[6]
 Banggaladésa300.000–500.000[7][8][9]
 Pakistan200.000[10][11][12]
 Thailand100.000[13]
 Malaysia40.070[14]
 Indonésia11.941[15]
 Népal200[16]
 India36.000[17]
Basa
Rohingya
Agama
Islam

Wong Rohingya iku wong Indho-Arya Muslim saka Praja Rakhine, Myanmar.[18][19] Miturut wong Rohingya dhéwé lan sawenèh winasis, wong Rohingya iku pribumi Praja Rakhine. Éwadéné, ana ahli sajarah kang mratélakaké manawa wong Rohingya iku saka Banggala kang neneka ing Myanmar ing telung mangsa: (1) nalika jamané pamaréntahan Britis ing Burma,[20][21][22] (2) nalika Burma mardika ing taun 1948, sarta (3) nalika Perang Pambébasing Banggaladésa ing taun 1971.[23][24][25][4][26] Organisasi hak asasi manungsa lan médhia internasional asring mratélakaké yèn wong Rohingya iku golongan minoritas kang paling disiya-siya ing saindenging donya.[27][28] Sanajan mangkono, pratélan mangkono durung kaweruhan asalé apa saka Pasarékatan Bangsa-Bangsa apa dudu.[29]

Wong Muslim wis dumunung ing Praja Rakhine (uga ingaran Arakan) kawit abad ping 16. Sadurungé wong Britis kuwasa, cacahé wong Muslim kang ndunungi wewengkon iku ora dingertèni persisé.[30] Sabubaré Perang Britis-Burma I ing taun 1826, wong Britis nyaplok wewengkon Arakan lan nggiyataké migrasi saka Banggala karebèn kang migrasi mau padha dadi buruh tani. Wong Muslim mau cacahé 5% saka gunggung warga Arakan rikala taun 1869, sanajan ing taun-taun sadurungé angkané luwih gedhé. Cacah sirah (sènsus) kang diadani wong Britis nalika taun 1872 lan 1911 nyathet undhak-undhakan kèhé wong Muslim saka wong 58.255 dadi wong 178.647 ing Dhistrik Akyab. Sasuwéné Perang Donya II, rajapati masal kelakon rikala taun 1942 ing Arakan amarga pecahing perang antaraning golongan Wadya V kang dumadi saka wong-wong Rohingya disenjatani péhak Britis lan golongan Buda Rakhine. Jalaran iku, wewengkon kono dadi kakothak-kothak miturut golongan ètnis.[31]

Ing taun 1982, pamaréntahan Jéndral Ne Win ngukuhaké pranatan bab warga nagara Burma. Pranatan iki ora ngakoni wong Rohingya minangka warga nagara. Kawit taun 1990-an, istilah "Rohingya" mundhak panganggoné sajeroning bebrayan Rohingya.[21][26]

Nalika taun 2013, ana udakara 1,3 yuta wong Rohingya kang urip ing Myanmar.[3] Wong Rohingya mligi dumunung ing iring lor kutha-kutha madya Rakhine lan cacah jiwané ngancik 80–98% gunggungé populasi kono.[26] Akèh wong Rohingya oncat menyang kampung-kampung reged lan kémah-kémah pangungsèn ing nagara Banggaladésa[32] lan laladan wates nagara Thailand. Wong Rohingya ing Myanmar ana cacah 100.000 punjul kang urip ing kémah-kémah pangungsèn, nanging ora diidinaké nglungani nagara déning pamaréntah saenggon.[33][34] Wong Rohingya olèh kawigatèn internasional amarga kadadéan haruhara ing Praja Rakhine ing taun 2012 sarta amarga krisis wong ngungsi ing taun 2015 nalika wong Rohingya marsudi migrasi menyang nagara-nagara ing Asiah Kidul-wétan.

Jeneng[besut | besut sumber]

Wong Rohingya ngarani golongané dhéwé Ruáingga /ɾuájŋɡa/. Ing basa-basa gedhé wewengkon kono, wong Rohingya diarani rui hang gya ing cara Burma: ရိုဟင်ဂျာ /ɹòhɪ̀ɴd͡ʑà/ lan Rohingga ing cara Banggala: রোহিঙ্গা /ɹohiŋɡa/.

Jacques P. Leider mratélakaké manawa ing sumber-sumber prakolonial, istilah Rohingya katulis Rooinga lan mung muncul pisan sajeroning tulisané Francis Buchanan-Hamilton.[35] Sajeroning artikelé taun 1799 "A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire" (cara Jawa: Vokabulèr Bandhingan Sawenèh Basa Caturan ing Kamaharajan Burma), Hamilton nulis, "saiki aku kudu nambahaké telung dhialèk kang digunemaké ing Kamaharajan Burma, tur katoné tumurun saka basané bangsa Indhu. Sing kapisan ya iku dicaturaké déning wongé Mokamad, kang wis kawit suwé dumunung ing Arakan, lan kang ngarani golongané dhéwé Rooinga, utawa pribumi Arakan."[36] Tembung Rohingya mangku teges "kang ndunungi Rohang". Rohang iku jeneng lawasé Arakan kang diwènèhi wong Muslim.[37][38]

Sabubaré kadadéan haruhara 2012, para akadhemisi nganggo istilah Rohingya kanggo ngarani bebrayan Muslim ing iring lor wewengkon Rakhine. Profésor Andrew Selth saka Universitas Griffith contoné, nganggo tembung "Rohingya" nanging mratélakaké yèn "golongan wong iki mono wong Muslim Banggala kang dumunung ing Praja Arakan... wong Rohingya akèh-akèhé padha teka bareng kolonialis Britis rikala abad ping 19 lan 20."[20][22] Ing antarané bebrayan agung Rohingya ing njaban rangkah, aran iku dadi sangsaya kondhang kawit taun 1990-an. Sanajan mangkono, wong-wong Muslim ing iring lor wewengkon Rakhine ora kalumrah ngrungu aran iku lan milih nganggo aran-aran liyané.[21][35]

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Mahmood; Wroe; Fuller; Leaning (2016). "The Rohingya people of Myanmar: health, human rights, and identity" (fee required). Lancet: 1–10. PMID 27916235. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00646-2. 
  2. David Mathieson (2009). Perilous Plight: Burma's Rohingya Take to the Seas. Human Rights Watch. k. 3. ISBN 9781564324856. 
  3. a b "Will anyone help the Rohingya people?". BBC News. 
  4. a b Dapice, David (October 2014). "Fatal Distraction from Federalism: Religious Conflict in Rakhine" (PDF). Harvard Ash Center. Diarsip saka sing asli (PDF) ing 5 January 2015. Dijupuk 8 February 2015. 
  5. "Who Are the Rohingya?". About Education. 2014. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 18 November 2012. Dijupuk 8 March 2015. 
  6. "Saudi Arabia entry at Ethnologue". Ethnologue. Dijupuk 6 February 2015. 
  7. "Banggaladésa's Rohingya camps - promise or peril?". The Daily Star. 2 December 2014. Dijupuk 19 May 2015. 
  8. "Myanmar Rohingya refugees call for Suu Kyi's help". Agence France-Presse. 13 June 2012. Dijupuk 9 July 2012. 
  9. "Banggaladésa for permanent solution to Burmese Rohingya refugee problem". Banggaladésa Business News. Dijupuk 19 May 2015. 
  10. "Homeless In Karachi | Owais Tohid, Arshad Mahmud". Outlookindia.com. 29 November 1995. Dijupuk 18 October 2013. 
  11. "Box 5925 Annapolis, MD 21403 info@srintl". Burmalibrary.org. Dijupuk 18 October 2013. 
  12. Derek Henry Flood (31 December 1969). "From South to South: Refugees as Migrants: The Rohingya in Pakistan". Huffington Post. Dijupuk 11 February 2015. 
  13. Husain, Irfan (30 July 2012). "Karma and killings in Myanmar". Dawn. Dijupuk 10 August 2012. 
  14. "Figure At A Glance". UNHCR Malaysia. 2014. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 30 December 2014. Dijupuk 30 December 2014. 
  15. Jalimin (19 May 2015). "Jumlah Pengungsi Rohingya di Indonésia Capai 11.941 Orang" (ing basa Indonesian). Acèh Tribun News. Diarsip saka asliné ing 11 October 2015. Dijupuk 11 October 2015. 
  16. "200 Rohingya Refugess are not accepted as Refugees and Nepal Government considers them illegal migrants". Diarsip saka sing asli ing 4 June 2016. An estimated 36,000 Rohingya Refugess living in India 
  17. "WorldLink: The plight of Rohingyas in India". Deutsche Welle. 29 July 2016. 
  18. Andrew Simpson (2007). Language and National Identity in Asia. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. k. 267. ISBN 978-0199226481. 
  19. "Rohingya reference at Ethnologue". 
  20. a b Leider 2013, k. 7.
  21. a b c Derek Tonkin. "The 'Rohingya' Identity - British experience in Arakan 1826-1948". The Irrawaddy. Dijupuk 19 January 2015. 
  22. a b Selth, Andrew (2003). Burma's Muslims: Terrorists or Terrorised?. Ostrali: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Ostralin National University. k. 7. ISBN 073155437X. 
  23. "Extract from record by UK Ambassador Terrence J O'Brien of his call in Rangoon on the Banggaladésa Ambassador to Burma Khwaja Mohammed Kaiser" (PDF). Network Myanmar. 23 December 1975. Dijupuk 21 February 2015. 
  24. Adloff, Richard; Thompson, Virginia (1955). Minority Problems in Southeast Asia. United States: Stanford University Press. k. 154. 
  25. Crisis Group 2014, kk. 4-5.
  26. a b c Leider, Jacques P. ""Rohingya": Rakhaing and Recent Outbreak of Violence: A Note" (PDF). Network Myanmar. Dijupuk 11 February 2015. 
  27. Crisis Group 2014, k. i.
  28. "Myanmar, Banggaladésa leaders 'to discuss Rohingya'". Agence France-Presse. 29 June 2012. 
  29. MclaughLin, Tim (8 July 2013). "Origin of ‘most persecuted minority’ statement unclear". Dijupuk 17 February 2015. 
  30. Leider 2013.
  31. Bayly & Harper (2005). Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945. Harvard University Press. kk. 383–384. ISBN 0-14-029331-0. 
  32. Ridwanul Hoque (16 March 2016). "Asian challenge". D+C, development and cooperation. Dijupuk 27 April 2016. 
  33. "Trapped inside Burma's refugee camps, the Rohingya people call for recognition". The Guardian. 20 December 2012. Dijupuk 10 February 2015. 
  34. "US Holocaust Museum highlights plight of Myanmar's downtrodden Rohingya Muslims". Fox News. Associated Press. 6 November 2013. 
  35. a b Leider, Jacques P. (9 July 2012). "Interview: History Behind Arakan State Conflict". The Irrawaddy. Dijupuk 9 July 2012. 
  36. Buchanan-Hamilton, Francis (1799). "A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire" (PDF). Asiatic Researches (The Asiatic Society) 5: 219–240. Dijupuk 9 July 2012. 
  37. "The Rohingyas: The most persecuted people on Earth?". The Economist. 13 June 2015. Dijupuk 15 June 2015. 
  38. Ghosh, Nirma l. "Genocide 'not the issue' in Myanmar". The Strait Times. Dijupuk 2 November 2015. 

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