Tamil Sri Lanka

Saka Wikipédia Jawa, bauwarna mardika basa Jawa
Menyang navigasi Menyang panggolèkan
Tamil Sri Lanka
இலங்கை தமிழர்
(ஈழத் தமிழர்)
Gunggung cacah jiwa
~ 3 yuta
(prakiran; ora kalebu Moor lan Tamil Indhia)
Tlatah mawa cacah jiwa akèh
 Sri Lanka2,270,924 (2012)[1]
 Kanada143,000 (2014)[2]
 Karajan Manunggal~120,000 (2006)[3]
 India~100,000 (2005)[4]
 Jerman~60,000 (2008)[5]
 Prancis~50,000 (2008)[6]
  Swiss~35,000 (2006)[7]
 Ostrali~30,000[8]
 Itali~25,000[8]
 Malaysia~24,436 (1970)[9]
 Walanda~20,000[8]
 Norwegia~10,000 (2000)[8]
 Denmark~9,000 (2003)[10]
Basa
Basa ing Sri Lanka: Basa Tamil (lan dhialèk Sri Lanka)
Sawenèh Basa Sinhala & Basa Inggris
Agama
Golongan ètnik magepokan

Tamil Sri Lanka ya iku anggotaning klompok étnik Tamil kang manggon ana ing nagara Sri Lanka. Sanajan wong Tamil Sri Lanka iku sacara budaya lan basa iku béda karo étnis Sinhala ing pulo iku, nanging miturut studhi génetik nuduhaké manawa kekaroné iku nduwèni sesambungan raket. Akèh-akèhé wong Tamil Sri Lanka iku padha ngrasuk agama Hindhu lan sapérangan uga ana kang Kristen. Sastra Tamil Sri Lanka kang ngewrat babagan manéka warna kawruh kalebu agama lan sains iku ngrembaka banter sasuwéné mangsa abad tengahan ing karaton Praja Jaffna. Dhialèk Tamil Sri Lanka misuwur awit tetembungan kuna utawa arkais kang ora dipigunakaké manèh déning wong-wong Tamil ing nagari Tamil Nadu, Indhia.

Agama[besut | besut sumber]

Akèh-akèhé wong Tamil Sri Lanka padha ngrasuk agama Hindhu, kang udakara wolung puluh persèn alirané Saiwa. Wondéné kang 7 persèn iku wong Kristen, utamané Katulik, ya iku nalika Portegis kasil ngasoraké Praja Jaffna. Akèh-akèhé wong Tamil Sri Lanka kang padha manggon ing Provinsi Kulon iku agamané Katulik, déné kang ana ing Provinsi Lor lan Wétan sapérangan gedhé agamané Hindhu. Miturut sènsus Sri Lanka taun 2012, kacathet manawa ana masarakat kang ngrasuk agama Buda kang gunggungé 22.254 utawa kurang saka 1% saka cacahing populasi.

Pangarsa agama Hindhu, mliginé Vellalar, iku ngenut idhéologi agama Shaiwa Siddhanta (aliran Shaiwa) lan uga nindakaké kapitayan Hindhu lokal, kanthi mikul dhuwur kapitayané marang déwa-déwa désa sakiwa-tengené kang ora tinemokaké ana sajroning kitab suci Hindhu kang resmi. Papan ngibadah gumantung karo objèk kang dipuja lan ana ngendi papan panggonané. Kaya mangkono iku karan prasada Hindhu kang misuwur diarani Koyil, dibangun jumbuh karo kitab suci. Nanging adaté papan ngibadah iku ora dibangun manut karo kitab suci, ananging namung papan prasaja kang dadi papan panggonané déwa. Ing papan ibadah iki uga katindakaké upacara puja padinan déning para warga sakiwa-tengen lan dipimpin déning sawijining pandhita aran Kurukkal.

Masarakat[besut | besut sumber]

Pasebaraning wong Tamil Sri Lanka ing saben provinsi miturut sènsus pendhudhuk taun 2012. Gunggunging Tamil Sri Lanka ya iku 2,270,924, udakara 11% saka cacahing pendhudhuk ing nagara Sri Lanka.

Pasebaran Tamil Sri Lanka (2012)[11]
Provinsi Tamil Sri Lanka %

Provinsi

% Tamil Sri Lanka
Provinsi Tengah, Sri Lanka 128,263 5.0% 5.7%
Provinsi Wétan, Sri Lanka 609,584 39.3% 26.8%
Provinsi Lor, Sri Lanka 987,692 93.3% 43.5%
Provinsi Tengah Lor, Sri Lanka 12,421 1.0% 0.6%
Provinsi Kidul-Kulon, Sri Lanka 66,286 2.8% 2.9%
Provinsi Sabaragamuwa 74,908 3.9% 3.3%
Provinsi Kidul, Sri Lanka 25,901 1.1% 1.1%
Provinsi Uva 30,118 2.4% 1.3%
Provinsi Kulon, Sri Lanka 335,751 5.8% 14.8%
Total 2,270,924 11.2% 100.0%

Tamil Wétan[besut | besut sumber]

Akèh-akèhé masarakat ing laladan Provinsi Wétan iku makarya tetanèn, mina, lan uga dagang[12]. Masarakaté padha ngrasuk agama Hindhu kanthi budaya matrilineal.[13] [14] Hukum tradhisional Mukkuva uga katindakaké déning sapérangan gedhé masarakat.[15][16]

Tamil Lor[besut | besut sumber]

Wewengkon kang dipanggoni masarakat Tamil Lor iku patilasaning Praja Jaffna. Masarakaté kapérang dadi rong klompok, ya iku Jaffna lan Vanni. Klompok kang sapisan iku manggon ana laladan tanjung lan pakaryan utamané iku tetanèn lan ternak. Déné klompok Vanni iku manggon ing palemahan Vanni, pakaryan utamané iku ana ing kebon kanthi pranatan irigasi kang becik.[17] Hukum tradhisionalé masarakat Tamil Lor iku Thesavalamai.[18]

Tamil Kulon[besut | besut sumber]

Masarakat Tamil Sri Lanka ing laladan kulon migunakaké dhialèk Negembo kang mbédakaké karo klompok Tamil liyané.[19] Kabudayané akèh kena pengaruh saka suku Sinhala. Ing laladan iki uga akèh wong Tamil Sri Lanka kang ngrasuk agama Katulik.[20]

Antropologi[besut | besut sumber]

Panlitèn génetik nuduhaké manawa wong Sinhala lan Tamil Sri Lanka iku nduwèni sesambungan raket tinimbang Tamil Indhia lan Muslim Indhia Kidul. Ciri génetik kang saèmper antarané Tamil Sri Lanka lan wong Sinhala iku 55.20% (+/- 9.47), wondéné manawa dibandhingaké karo Tamil Indhia iku namung 16.63% (+/- 8.73). Prakara iki nuduhaké manawa pakraman antarané rong suku ing Sri Lanka iku wis nglamataké ciri génetik wong Tamil Sri Lanka klawan wong Tamil Indhia.

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. "Census of Population and Housing 2011". www.statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  2. "Tamils by the Numbers". TamilCulture.ca (in Inggris). 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  3. "BBCSinhala.com". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  4. Kumar, Acharya, A. (2014). "Ethnic conflict and refugees in Sri Lanka". Antropología Experimental. 0 (7). Lay summary.
  5. Baumann, Martin; Salentin, Kurt (2006-10-01). "Migrant Religiousness and Social Incorporation: Tamil Hindus from Sri Lanka in Germany". Journal of Contemporary Religion. 21 (3): 297–323. doi:10.1080/13537900600925958. ISSN 1353-7903.
  6. TamilNet. "TamilNet". www.tamilnet.com (in Inggris). Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  7. swissinfo.ch, S. W. I.; Corporation, a branch of the Swiss Broadcasting. "Swiss Tamils look to preserve their culture". SWI swissinfo.ch (in Inggris). Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  8. a b c d "History of the Tamil Diaspora". murugan.org. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  9. "Tamil". Ethnologue (in Inggris). Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  10. Barnes 2002, k. 110"In Denmark we have around nine thousand Sri Lankan Tamils, more than eight thousand of whom are Hindus."
  11. "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  12. Ruwanpura 2006, k. 96Like Muslims and Sinhalese in the region (...), Tamils are engaged in fishing agriculture, though far fewer Tamils are engaged in trading activities.
  13. Ruwanpura 2006, k. 96bSince the Tamils in the region are a predominantly Hindu community, (...)
  14. Ruwanpura 2006, k. 95(...), eastern Tamlils are known for their matrilineal customs and practice.
  15. Brito 1876, k. iiiThe following pages contain the result of the compiler’s inquiries among the learned Mukkuvars of Batticaloa and Calpentyn, and an examination of cases consulted by him, while practising law at Batticaloa.
  16. Brito, C. (1876). The Mukkuva law: or, The rules of succession among the Mukkuvars of Ceylon. H.D. Gabriel. OCLC 4624637.
  17. Fernando, A. Denis N. (1987). "PENINSULAR JAFFNA FROM ANCIENT TO MEDIEVAL TIMES: Its Significant Historical and Settlement Aspects". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka. 32: 63–90. ISSN 1391-720X.
  18. "Thesavalamai | Tamil law". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Inggris). Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  19. Bonta, Steven (2010). "Negombo Fishermen's Tamil: A Case of Indo-Aryan Contact-Induced Change in a Dravidian Dialect". Anthropological Linguistics. 52 (3–4): 310–343. doi:10.1353/anl.2010.0021. ISSN 1944-6527.
  20. Foell, Jens. (2002). Participation, patrons and the village : the case of coastal zone management in the Puttalam District, Sri Lanka. School of African and Asian Studies, University of Sussex. OCLC 50958471.