Mohammad-Ali Foroughi

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Mohammad-Ali Foroughi
محمدعلی فروغی
Foroughi PM1314.jpg
Prime Minister of Iran 22nd
Linggih
27 August 1941 – 9 March 1942
RatuReza Shah
Mohammad Reza Shah
Kang sadurungéAli Mansur
Kang sawiséAli Soheili
Linggih
18 September 1933 – 3 December 1935
RatuReza Shah
Kang sadurungéMehdi Qoli Hedayat
Kang sawiséMahmoud Jam
Linggih
1 November 1925 – 13 June 1926
RatuReza Shah
Kang sadurungéRēzā Pahlavi
Kang sawiséMostowfi ol-Mamalek
Minister of Finance
Linggih
1 September 1924 – 1 November 1925
MahamantriReza Khan
Linggih
15 June 1923 – 26 October 1923
MahamantriHassan Pirnia
Linggih
14 March 1915 – 1 May 1915
MahamantriHassan Pirnia
Linggih
24 May 1913 – 3 June 1913
MahamantriSaad ad-Daula
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Linggih
28 October 1923 – 1 September 1924
MahamantriReza Khan
Linggih
14 February 1923 – 15 June 1923
MahamantriMostowfi ol-Mamalek
Minister of Justice
Linggih
3 June 1913 – 6 December 1914
MahamantriSaad ad-Daula
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Speaker of the Parliament
Linggih
6 July 1912 – 10 July 1912
Kang sadurungéMirza Esmaiel Khan
Kang sawiséHossein Pirnia
Member of the Parliament of Iran
Linggih
19 November 1909 – 3 August 1921
ConstituencyTehran
Rerincèn dhiri
Lair1 January 1875
Tehran, Iran
Pati26 Novèmber 1942(1942-11-26) (umur 67)
Tehran, Iran
PakuburanIbn Babawayh Cemetery
Parté pulitikRevival Party
Anak6
AlmamaterTehran School of Political Sciences
Dar ul-Funun

Mohammad Ali Foroughi (1 Januari 1875[1][2][3] – 26 November 1942, Pèrsi: محمدعلی فروغی ) uga dikenal minangka Zoka-ol-Molk ( Persia : ذکاءالملک) yaiku guru, diplomat, nasionalis, panulis, politisi lan Perdana Menteri Iran .

Awal urip lan pendidikan[besut | besut sumber]

Foroughi lair ing Teheran kanggo kulawarga pedagang saka Isfahan . Leluhuré, Mirza Abutorab minangka wakil saka Isfahan ing dataran Mugan sajrone penobatan Nader Shah Afshar . Kakeknya, Mohammad Mehdi Arbab Isfahani, ana ing antarane para pedagang paling berpengaruh ing Isfahan lan mahir ing sajarah lan geografi. Bapakne Mohammad Hosein Foroughi iku penerjemah Shah saka basa Arab lan Perancis. Dheweke uga penyair lan nerbitake koran sing disebut Tarbiat. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar dijuluki Mohammad Hosein, Foroughi, sawise ngrungu sawijining puisi sing ditulis. Akeh sumber sing nyebutake yen leluhur Foroughi yaiku wong Yahudi Baghdadi sing teka ing Isfahan lan diowahi dadi Islam. [4] Sajrone pendhudhukan Iran ing perang donya kaping pindho, Nazi Jerman kerep nandheske leluhur Yahudi iki ing siaran radio.[5]Sajrone urip awal, Foroughi sinau ing elite Dar ul-Funun (House of Sciences) ing Teheran .

Karir[besut | besut sumber]

Ing taun 1907, ramane Foroughi tilar donya, lan kanthi mangkono, Foroughi ngrebut gelar bapake Zoka-ol-Molk .[6]. Ing taun sing padha, Foroughi dadi dekan College of Political Sciences . Ing taun 1909, dheweke dadi politikus minangka anggota Dewan (Parlemen), sing makili Teheran. Panjenenganipun salajengipun dados pembicara rumah lan nate dados mentri ing pinten-pinten kabinèt ugi perdhana mentri kaping tiga lan sepindhah minangka perdana menteri nalika Reza Khan mundur minangka perdana menteri kanggé ngangkat makutha minangka Reza Shah. Ing taun 1912, piyambakipun dados presiden Mahkamah Agung Iran. Sawise kuwi, dheweke ditunjuk minangka perdana menteri lan dipecat taun 1935 amarga bapakné mertua, Muhammad Vali Asadi, didakwa partisipasi ing huru-hara ing Mashhad nglawan reformasi sing dilakokaké déning Reza Shah [7]

Nanging, akhire Foroughi bisa ngolehake statuse lan dadi Perdhana Mentri nalika fase awal pemerintahan Mohammad Reza Pahlavi[7] Foroughi minangka perdana menteri minangka instrumental nalika Mohammad Reza Pahlavi diproklamasèkaké minangka raja sawisé bapaké, Reza Shah, dipeksa nyerah (16 September 1941) lan diasingaké déning pasukan sekutu United Kingdom lan Uni Sovyèt nalika Perang Donya II . Sawisé ambruk kabinet, dheweke dijenengi Mentri Pengadilan banjur dijenengi duta besar Iran kanggo Amerika Serikat, nanging dheweke tiwas ing Teheran nalika umur 67 taun sadurunge bisa nganggep pos kasebut.

Foroughi karo Ali Mansour, Mostafa Gholibayat, Aliakbar Davar lan Mahmoud Jam.

Buku[besut | besut sumber]

Foroughi at the court of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Foroughi nulis akeh buku, kalebu

The History of Iran,
The History of the Ancient Peoples of The East,
A Short History of Ancient Rome,
Constitutional Etiquette,
A Concise Course in Physics,
Far-fetched Thoughts,
The Wisdom of Socrates,
The History of Philosophy in Europe,
My Message to the Academy of Language (Farhangestan),
The Rules of Oratory or The Technique of Speech Making,
a book on the Shahnameh (The Book of Kings).[butuh klarifikasi]

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. [1]
  2. http://seemorgh.com/culture/history-and-civilization/history-and-civilization-of-iran/274314-با-محمدعلی-فروغی-آشنا-شوید/
  3. https://cgie.org.ir/fa/news/181533
  4. Mina Shahmiri, A look at the life of Mohammad Ali Foroughi, in the midst of culture and power, Etemad Newspaper, No 1842, 2008.
  5. Bagher Agheli, A biography of political and military figures in contemporary Iran, Elm publishing, Tehran, 2001.
  6. Amanat: FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK. Encyclopedia Iranica, 1999, pp. 108–112.
  7. a b Gholam Reza Afkhami (27 October 2008). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-520-25328-5. Dibukak ing 4 November 2012.

Sumber[besut | besut sumber]

  • 'Alí Rizā Awsatí (عليرضا اوسطى), Iran in the past three centuries (Irān dar Se Qarn-e Goz̲ashteh - ايران در سه قرن گذشته), Volumes 1 and 2 (Paktāb Publishing - انتشارات پاکتاب, Tehran, Iran, 2003). ISBN 964-93406-6-1 (Vol. 1), ISBN 964-93406-5-3 (Vol. 2).
  • Afshar, Iraj (1999). "FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 1. London et al. pp. 108–112.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Pranala Njaba[besut | besut sumber]

  • A short motion picture of Mohammad-Ali Foroughi, from the film archives of Anoshirvan Sepahbodi, Geneva, 1931: YouTube.
Kalungguhan pulitik
Kang sadurungé
Reza Khan
Prime Minister of Iran
1925–1926
Kang sawisé
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Kang sadurungé
Mehdi Qoli Hedayat
Prime Minister of Iran
1933–1935
Kang sawisé
Mahmoud Jam
Kang sadurungé
Ali Mansur
Prime Minister of Iran
1941–1942
Kang sawisé
Ali Soheili