Kemangga

Saka Wikipédia, Bauwarna Mardika abasa Jawa / Saking Wikipédia, Bauwarna Mardika abasa Jawi
Langsung menyang: pandhu arah, pados
Kemangga, angga-angga
Temporal range: 319–0 Ma
Late Carboniferous to Recent
Angga-angga panenun ing tengah jaringé
Klasifikasi èlmiah
krajan: Animalia
filum: Arthropoda
Subfilum: Chelicerata
(unranked): Arachnomorpha
kelas: Arachnida
ordo: Araneae
Clerck, 1757
Suborders

Mesothelae
Mygalomorphae
Araneomorphae
 delengen Famili saka kemangga

Diversity
109 families, c. 40,000 species

Kemangga, (jeneng liya mangga utawa kalamangga, sok-sokan angga-angga), iku sajenis kéwan kanthi awak ros-rosan (Arthropoda) mawa rong sègmèn badan, patang pasang sikil, ora duwé sewiwi lan ora duwé cangkem pamamah. Kabèh jenis angga-angga digolongaké ing ordo Araneae; lan padha karo kalajengking, tumo, caplak lan kerabaté --kabèh sing sikilé wolu—dilebokaké ing kelas Arachnida. Elmu sing nyinaoni ngenani angga-angga yaiku arachnologi.

Angga-angga arupa kéwan pamangsa (karnivora), malah kadhang uga kanibal. Mangsa utamané yaiku srangga. Mèh kabèh jenis angga-angga, kejaba watara 150 spesies saka suku Uloboridae lan Holarchaeidae, lan subordo Mesothelae, bisa nyuntikaké wisa liwat sapasang taringé marang mungsuh utawa mangsané. Senadyan mangkono, saka puluhan éwu spesies sing ana, mung watara 200 spesies kang wisane bisa mbebayani kanggo manungsa.

Ora kabèh angga-angga gawé sawang kanggo nyekel mangsa, nanging kabèh bisa ngasilaké bolah sutra utawa lamat --yaiku leran serat protein sing tipis nanging kuwat-- saka kelenjar (disebut spinneret) sing ana ing bagéyan mburi badané. Serat sutra iki banget migunani kanggo mbiyantu obahé angga-angga, ngayun saka papan siji menyang papan liyané, njiret mangsa, nggawé kanthong endhog, nglindhungi bolongan susuh, lan liya-liyané.

Morfologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Anatomi angga-angga:
(1) patang pasang sikil
(2) cephalothorax
(3) opisthosoma

Ora kaya srangga sing duwé telung bagéyan badan, angga-angga mung duwé loro. Sègmèn bagéyan ngarep diarani cephalothorax utawa prosoma, sing sabeneré arupa gabungan saka endhas lan dhadha (thorax). Éwadéné sègmèn bagéyan mburi diarani abdomen (weteng) utawa opisthosoma. Antara cephalothorax lan abdomen ana panyambung tipis sing dijenengi pedicle utawa pedicellus.

Ing cephalothorax ana patang pasang sikil, lan siji tekan patang pasang mata. Saliyané sepasang rahang kanthi suing gedhé (diarani chelicera), ana uga sepasang utawa sapérangan alat pambiyantu cangkem sarupa tangan sing diarani pedipalpus. Ing sapérangan jenis angga-angga, pedipalpus ing kéwan jantan diwasa saya gedhé lan malih fungsiné minangka alat pambiyantu nalika kawin.

Angga-angga ora duwé cangkem utawa untu kanggo mamah. Minangka gantiné, cangkem angga-angga arupa alat panyedhot kanggo nyedhot cuwèran badan mangsané.

Piranti ngrasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mata angga-angga umumé arupa mata tunggal (mata mawa lensa tunggal), lan dudu mata majemuk kaya ing srangga. Akèh-akèhé angga-angga duwé pandelengan sing ora patiya apik, ora bisa mbédakaké werna, utawa mung sing sensitive marang padhang lan peteng. Angga-angga sing manggon ing guwa malah ana sing wuta. Kejaba ing sapérangan angga-angga pamburu sing duwé pandelengan tajem lan apik, klebu nalika ngenali werna.

Kanggo nengeri tekané mangsané, umumé angga-angga ngandhelaké geteran, ing jaring-jaring sutrané utawa ing lemah, banyu, utawa papan sing diéncoki. Ana uga angga-angga sing bisa ngrasakaké bédané tekanan udhara. Piranti panggrayang angga-angga ana ing rambut-rambut sikilé.

Taksonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Familia kang kacithak kandel nduweni siji utawa pira-pira spesies kang nduweni wisa.


1 <10 >=10 >=100 >=1000
Spider families (Oct 23, 2009)
Sub ordo Superfamilia Familia Genus Spesies Jeneng umum Conto
Mesothelae Liphistiidae 5 85 segmented spiders Kimura-gumo
Mygalomorphae Mecicobothrioidea Mecicobothriidae 4 9 dwarf tarantulas
Microstigmatidae 7 15 Envia garciai
Hexatheloidea Hexathelidae 11 85 venomous funnel-web tarantulas Sydney funnel-web spider
Dipluroidea Dipluridae 24 177 funnel-web tarantulas Spruce-fir moss spider
Nemesioidea Nemesiidae 41 342 Black wishbone spider
Theraphosoidea Theraphosidae 116 909 tarantulas Goliath birdeater
Paratropididae 4 8 baldlegged spiders
Barycheloidea Barychelidae 44 300 trapdoor baboon spiders Sason sundaicum
Atypoidea Atypidae 3 43 purse web spiders Red legged purseweb spider
Antrodiaetidae 2 32 folding trapdoor spiders Atypoides riversi
Cyrtauchenioidea Cyrtaucheniidae 18 134 wafer trapdoor spiders Aptostichus simus
Idiopoidea Idiopidae 22 297 Black rugose trapdoor spider
Ctenizoidea Ctenizidae 9 117 cork-lid trapdoor spiders Cteniza sauvagesi
Migoidea Migidae 10 91 tree trapdoor spiders
Actinopodidae 3 41 Mouse spider
Araneomorphae Hypochiloidea Hypochilidae 2 11 lampshade spiders Hypochilus thorelli
Austrochiloidea Austrochilidae 7 16 Tasmanian cave spider
Gradungulidae 7 16 large-clawed spiders Carrai Cave Spider
Filistatoidea Filistatidae 17 110 crevice weavers Southern house spider
Scytodoidea Drymusidae 1 15 false violin spiders
Periegopidae 1 2
Scytodidae 5 220 spitting spiders Scytodes thoracica
Sicariidae 2 121 recluse spiders Brown recluse
Leptonetoidea Leptonetidae 15 199 leptonetid spiders Tooth cave spider
Ochyroceratidae 14 156 midget ground weavers Theotima minutissima
Telemidae 7 31 long-legged cave spiders
Pholcoidea Diguetidae 2 15 coneweb spiders
Pholcidae 80 1036 daddy long-legs spiders Daddy long-leg spider
Plectreuridae 2 29 plectreurid spiders
Caponioidea Caponiidae 13 71 Two-eyed orange spider
Tetrablemmidae 30 130 armored spiders
Dysderoidea Dysderidae 24 487 woodlouse hunter spiders Woodlouse spider
Oonopidae 73 503 dwarf hunting spiders Oonops domesticus
Orsolobidae 28 181
Segestriidae 3 110 tubeweb spiders Segestria florentina
Eresoidea Eresidae 10 94 velvet spiders Ladybird spider
Hersiliidae 12 159 tree trunk spiders Two-tailed spider
Oecobiidae 6 103 disc web spiders Oecobius navus
Archaeoidea Archaeidae 3 37 pelican spiders Assassin spider
Holarchaeidae 1 2
Mecysmaucheniidae 7 25
Micropholcommatidae 8 34
Pararchaeidae 7 34
Palpimanoidea Huttoniidae 1 1 Huttonia palpimanoides
Palpimanidae 15 131 palp-footed spiders
Stenochilidae 2 12
Mimetoidea Malkaridae 4 10 shield spiders
Mimetidae 13 152 pirate spiders Oarces reticulatus
Uloboroidea Deinopidae 4 57 net-casting spiders Rufous net-casting spider
Uloboridae 18 254 hackled orb-weaver Uloborus walckenaerius
Araneoidea Anapidae 37 147
Araneidae 167 2841 orb-weaver spiders Zygiella x-notata
Cyatholipidae 23 58
Linyphiidae 583 4297 dwarf / money spiders Blacktailed red sheetweaver
Mysmenidae 24 123 spurred orb-weavers Mysmenopsis furtiva
Nesticidae 9 195 cave cobweb spiders Nesticella marapu
Pimoidae 4 33 Pimoa altioculata
Symphytognathidae 7 56 dwarf orb-weavers Patu digua
Synaphridae 3 12
Synotaxidae 14 70
Tetragnathidae 47 912 long jawed orb-weavers Orchard orb weaver
Nephilidae 4 44 large-jawed spiders Golden orb-web spider
Theridiidae 109 2262 cobweb spiders Black widow spider
Theridiosomatidae 12 84 ray spiders Theridiosoma gemmosum
Lycosoidea Ctenidae 40 468 tropical wolf spiders Brazilian wandering spider
Lycosidae 112 2293 wolf spiders Lycosa tarentula
Oxyopidae 9 417 lynx spiders Green lynx spider
Pisauridae 53 334 nursery web spiders Fishing spiders
Psechridae 2 26
Senoculidae 1 31
Stiphidiidae 22 136 Tartarus mullamullangensis
Trechaleidae 18 97
Zoridae 14 76
Zorocratidae 5 42 zorocratid spiders
Zoropsidae 12 75 zoropsid spiders Zoropsis spinimana
Agelenoidea Agelenidae 42 508 araneomorph funnel-web spiders Hobo spider
Amphinectidae 32 159 Metaltella simoni
Amaurobioidea Amaurobiidae 74 731 tangled nest spiders Callobius claustrarius
Dictynoidea Anyphaenidae 56 508 anyphaenid sac spiders Yellow ghost spider
Cybaeidae 12 162 Water spider
Desidae 38 181 intertidal spiders Foliage webbing spider
Dictynidae 48 555 dictynid spiders Nigma walckenaeri
Hahniidae 26 236 dwarf sheet spiders
Nicodamidae 9 29
Sparassoidea Sparassidae 83 1061 huntsman spiders Avondale spider
Selenopoidea Selenopidae 5 193 wall spiders Selenops radiatus
Zodaroidea Zodariidae 75 892 zodariid ground spiders Zodarion germanicum
Tengelloidea Tengellidae 8 50 tengellid spiders
incertae sedis Chummidae 1 2
Clubionidae 14 547 sac spiders Clubiona trivialis
Cycloctenidae 5 36
Homalonychidae 1 3
Miturgidae 28 346 long-legged sac spiders Yellow sac spider
Titanoecoidea Phyxelididae 12 54
Titanoecidae 5 43 titanoecid spiders Goeldia obscura
Gnaphosoidea Ammoxenidae 4 18
Cithaeronidae 2 6
Gallieniellidae 10 48
Gnaphosidae 112 2047 flat-bellied ground spiders Drassodes lapidosus
Lamponidae 23 192 white-tailed spiders White-tailed spider
Prodidomidae 30 302 long-spinneret ground spiders Lygromma anops
Trochanteriidae 19 152
Thomisoidea Philodromidae 27 520 philodromid crab spiders Philodromus dispar
Thomisidae 173 2040 crab spiders Goldenrod spider
Salticoidea Salticidae 567 5192 jumping spiders Zebra spider
Corinnoidea Corinnidae 80 940 dark sac spiders Castianeira sp.
Liocranidae 30 166 liocranid sac spiders
3 ca. 38 109 3747 40288 Total
Sources:

Pranala njaba[sunting | sunting sumber]

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