Hanyu Pinyin

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Langsung menyang: pandhu arah, pados
Pinyin
Chinese: 拼音
Scheme of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet
Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案
Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案

Hanyu Pinyin ((zh)

[pʰín ín]) iku sistem resmi kanggo ngowahi aksara Cina menyang aksara Latin ing negara Cina, Taiwan[1], Singapura, lan Malaysia. Sistem iki kerep dianggo mulang basa Mandarinlan ngéja jeneng Cina ing publikasi manca lan dipigunakaké minangka lebonan (input) menyang komputer sing nganggo aksara Cina (汉字 / 漢字, hànzì).

Sistem iki digawé ing taun 1950an adhedhasar wangun romanisasi sadurungé, lan dibabar déning pamaréntah Cina ing taun 1958 lan bola-bali dirévisi.[2] The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as the international standard in 1982.[3] Sistem iki didadèkaké standar ing Taiwan ing taun 2009, lan umumé disebut Sistem Fonètik Anyar.[4][5]

Hànyǔ tegesé basa pocapan saka Wong Han lan pinyin sacara harfiah tegesé "pocapan" (phonetics).[6]

Inisial[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ing saben sèl ing ngisor, baris pisanan nuduhaké IPA, baris kaloro nuduhaké pinyin.

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Palatal Velar
Plosive [p]
b
[pʰ]
p
[t]
d
[tʰ]
t
[k]
g
[kʰ]
k
Nasal [m]
m
[n]
n
Liquid [l]
l
[ɻ~ʐ]1
r
Affricate [ts]
z
[tsʰ]
c
[tʂ]
zh
[tʂʰ]
ch
[tɕ]
j
[tɕʰ]
q
Fricative   [f]
f
[s]
s
[ʂ]
sh
[ɕ]
x
[x]
h
Semivowel       [j]2  or [ɥ]3
y  
[w]2
w

1 /ɻ/ may phonetically be [ʐ] (a voiced retroflex fricative). Pocapan iki owah miturut pamicara, lan dudu rong fonèm kang béda.
2 Aksara "w" lan "y" ora kalebu ing tabel wiwitan iki. Ana konvènsi orthographic tumrap medial "i", "u" lan "ü" sing ora ana ing tabel wiwitan. Yèn "i", "u" utawa "ü" pungkasan lan ora ana wiwitané, diwaca "yi", "wu", lan "yu".
3 "y" dipocapaké [ɥ] (a labial-palatal approximant) sadurungé "u".

Urutan sacara konvènsional (ora kalebu w lan y), asal saka sistem zhuyin, ya iku:

b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s

Final[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cithakan:Mandarin vowels Tabel ig ngisor iki mènèhi kombinasi medial lan pungkasn (final) miturut analisis sing duwé asumsi mung loro nuclei vowel, /a/ lan /ə/;[7] various allophones result depending on phonetic context.

Final Medial
Nucleus Coda i u y
/a/ [ɑ]
a
-a
[i̯ɑ]
ya
-ia
[u̯ɑ]
wa
-ua
i [aɪ̯]
ai
-ai
[u̯aɪ̯]
wai
-uai
u [ɑʊ̯]
ao
-ao
[i̯ɑʊ̯]
yao
-iao
n [an]
an
-an
[i̯ɛn]
yan
-ian
[u̯an]
wan
-uan
[y̯ɛn]
yuan
-üan 2
ŋ [ɑŋ]
ang
-ang
[i̯ɑŋ]
yang
-iang
[u̯ɑŋ]
wang
-uang
/ə/ [ɯ̯ʌ]
e
-e
[i̯ɛ]
ye
-ie
[u̯ɔ] 3
wo
-uo/-o
[y̯œ]
yue
-üe 2
i [eɪ̯]
ei
-ei
[u̯eɪ̯]
wei
-ui
u [ɤʊ̯]
ou
-ou
[i̯ɤʊ̯]
you
-iu
n [ən]
en
-en
[in]
yin
-in
[u̯ən]
wen
-un
[yn]
yun
-ün 2
ŋ [əŋ]
eng
-eng
[iŋ]
ying
-ing
[u̯əŋ], [ʊŋ] 4
weng
-ong
[i̯ʊŋ]
yong
-iong
[ɨ]

-i
[i]
yi
-i
[u]
wu
-u
[y]
yu
2

1 [ɑɻ] is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends -r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final -r, please see Erhua#Rules.
2 "ü" tinulis "u" after j, q, x, or y.
3 "uo" tinulis "o" after b, p, m, or f.
4 "weng" dipocapaké [ʊŋ] (tinulis "ong") yèn sadurungé ana initial.

Sacara tèknik, i, u, ü tanpa dikanthèni vowel iku final, dudu medial, lan amarga saka kuwi nganggo tone marks. Saliyané kuwi, ê [ɛ] (欸, 誒) lan syllabic nasal m (呒, 呣), n (嗯, 唔), ng (嗯, 𠮾) dipigunakaké minangka interjection.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles (2005). The science of reading: a handbook. Blackwell handbooks of developmental psychology). 17. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 320–22. ISBN 1-4051-1488-6. http://books.google.com/?id=qV7s-Oyx13oC.
  2. ^ "Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday", Xinhua News Agency, 2008-02-11. diaksès tanggal 2008-09-20. 
  3. ^ "ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation – Romanization of Chinese". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=13682. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
  4. ^ "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009", Taipei Times, 2008-09-18. diaksès tanggal 2008-09-20. 
  5. ^ "Government to improve English-friendly environment", The China Post, 2008-09-18. diaksès tanggal 2008-09-20. 
  6. ^ Harbaugh, Richard (1998). "中文字普 (Chinese Characters: A Genealogy and Dictionary)". Zhongwen.com. http://zhongwen.com/d/186/x126.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
  7. ^ Hashimoto, Mantaro (1970). "Notes on Mandarin Phonology". In Jakobson, Roman; Kawamoto, Shigeo. Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics. Tokyo: TEC. pp. 207–220Cithakan:Inconsistent citations

Wacan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Yin Binyong 尹斌庸 and Mary Felley (1990). Chinese Romanization. Pronunciation and Orthography (Hanyu pinyin he zhengcifa 汉语拼音和正词法). Beijing: Sinolingua. ISBN 7-80052-148-6 / ISBN 0-8351-1930-0.
  • Gao, J. K. (2005). Pinyin shorthand: a bilingual handbook = [Pinyin su ji fa]. Dallas, TX: Jack Sun. ISBN 1-59971-251-2
  • Kimball, R. L. (1988). Quick reference Chinese: a practical guide to Mandarin for beginners and travelers in English, Pinyin romanization, and Chinese characters. San Francisco, CA: China Books & Periodicals. ISBN 0-8351-2036-8
  • Uy, Dr. Tim and Jim Hsia (ed.) (2009). Webster's Digital Chinese Dictionary: Advanced Reference Edition. Mountain View, CA: Loqu8 Press.
  • Wu, C.-j. (1979). The Pinyin Chinese–English dictionary. Hong Kong: Commercial Press. ISBN 0-471-27557-3

Pranala jaba[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sing mengku  sadurungé:
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Official romanization adopted
by the People's Republic of China

1958-
Diganti déning:
current
Sing mengku  sadurungé:
Wade-Giles
de facto used romanization
by the People's Republic of China

1978-
Diganti déning:
current
Sing mengku  sadurungé:
Tongyong Pinyin
Official romanization adopted
by the Republic of China (Taiwan)

2009-
Diganti déning:
current
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