Wong Tanka

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Tanka people
MacaneseTanka.JPG
Wong Tanka wédok Makau.
Gunggung cacah jiwa
4,569,000 [1]
Tlatah mawa cacah jiwa akèh
Cina Cina Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang
Basa
Dhialèk Tanka saka Basa Cina Yue,
Dhialèk Fuzhou saka Basa Cina Min Wétan (Tanka Fuzhou), liyané varieties of Chinese
Agama
Agamané wong Cina (kalebu Taoisme, Konghuchu, animisme ing Cina lan liya-liyané) lan Buddha Mahayana.

Wong Tanka (Hanzi Sederhana: ; Hanzi Tradisional: ; Pinyin: Dànjiā; Cantonese Yale: Daahngā) utawa wong prau ya iku sawijining subgolongan ètnis ing Cina Kidul[1] sing uripé ana ing dhuwur prau jong ing pasisir Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Langkawi district, lan Zhejiang, uga Hong Kong, lan Makau. Sanadyan saiki akèh kang manggon ing dharat, sawetara wong saka générasi sing luwih ndhisik ana kang isih manggon ing prau-prau lan isih ngupajiwa sarana cara tradhisional, ya iku mancing. Ing sajarahé, wong Tanka kuwi dianggep minangka golongané wong-wong buwangan. Amarga wng-wong kasebut urip ana ing prau ing segara, wong-wong kuwi kadhang-kadhang dijuluki "gipsi segara" (sea gypsies) déning wong Cina lan wong Inggris. Asliné wong Tanka bisa dilarah saka anané ètnis minoritas asli ing Cina pérangan kidul sing lunga ngungsi menyang segara lan sithik mbaka sithik nggilut kabudayan Han. Sanajang mangkono, wong Tanka isih tansah nglèstarèkaké budayané dhèwè kang nduwé tradhisi kang ora ana ing budaya Cina Han.

Sawenèh wong Tanka uga manggon ing sawenèh wewengkon ing Viètnam. Ing kana, wong-wong kuwi dijuluki lagi disebut Dan (Đàn) lan digolongaké minangka sawijining subgolongan saka ètnis Ngái.

Étimologi[besut | besut sumber]

Tembung Tanka saiki dianggep derogatory lan umumé ora tau dinggo manèh.[2] "Tank" iku tembung saka basa Kanton kanggo kang tegesé prau utawa prau jong lan "ka" kang tegesé kulawarga utawa wong. Wong-wong padunung prau iki sing saiki diarani "wong-wong ing-banyu" (Tionghoa: 水上人; Pinyin: shuǐshàng rén; Cantonese Yale: Séuiseuhngyàn),[3] utawa "wong-wong saka segara kidul" (Tionghoa: 南海人; Cantonese Yale: Nàamhóiyàn) ing basa Cina.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Ora ana basa Inggris baku sing ana kanggo istilah iki. "Wong Prau" iku pertalan tembung kang umum digunakaké, sanajan tembung iku bakal gawé bingung amarga ana istilah kanggo wong ngungsi Viètnam ing Hong Kong kang mèmper. Istilah "Padunung Prau" iki diajokaké déning Dr. Lee Ho Yin saka Universitas Hong Kong ing taun 1999, lan wis dianggo déning Musiyum Sajarah Hong Kong kanggo pamèrané.[12]

Wong Tanka lan wong Kanton, kekaroné nuturaké basa Kanton.[13][14] Nanging, wong Tanka kang manggon ing Fujian nuturaké basa Cina Min.

"Wong Prau" iku katégori umum kanggoné wong Tanka lan wong Hoklo, sing uga manggon ana ing prau. Wong-wong kasebut nuturaké dhialèk kang béda, lan wong Hoklo iku asalé saka Fujian. Wong Hoklo nganggo istilah Hoklo kanggo ngrujuk marang awaké dhéwé, déné jeneng Tanka iki digunakaké déning wong Kanton kanggo ngrujuk marang wong Tanka.

Ana rong katégori bab wong adhédhasar cara uripé, lan katégori kasebut banjur dipérang manèh dadi sawenèh golongan kang béda-béda. Wong Hakka lan wong Kanton urip ing dharat; wong Tanka lan wong Hoklo urip ing prau lan leloroné padha-padha digolongaké dadi wong prau.[15]

Bedané wong Tanka kang manggon ana ing segara karo ing dharat ora dhédhasar cara uripé. Wong Kanton lan wong Hakka kang urip ing dharat kadhang kala uga mancing kanggo pangupajiwané, nanging warigaluh kang urip ing dharat iki ora tau campur utawa omah-omah karo warigaluh Tanka. Wong Tanka asring dialangi saka hajaté wong-wong Kanton lan Hakka.[16]

Lapurané wong Inggris ing Hong Kong njlèntrèhaké yèn wong tanka lan wong Hoklo wis urip ing Hong Kong "wiwit wektu kang ora ora dingerteni".[17][18] Ing énsiklopédi Americana medharaké yèn wong Hoklo lan Tanka urip ing Hong Kong "wiwit jaman prasajarah".[19][20][21]

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Maria Jaschok; Suzanne Miers (1994). Maria Jaschok; Suzanne Miers, eds. Women and Chinese patriarchy: submission, servitude, and escape. Zed Books. k. xvi. ISBN 1-85649-126-9. Tanka, a marginalised boat people which could be found in the Southern provinces of China. 
  2. Pamitan kanggo Peasant China: Deso Urbanisasi lan owah-Owahan Sosial ing ... – Kaca 75 Gregory Eliyu Guldin – 1997 "Ing Dongji dusun, paling desa padha originally shuishangren (boat wong) [Uga dikenal ing West dening pejorative label, "Tanka" wong. — Ed.] lan dienggoni ing tanah mung ing taun 1950-an. Per-kapita lestarekake tanah averaged mung 1 mu ..."
  3. Cornelius Osgood (1975). The Chinese: a study of a Hong Kong community, Volume 3. University of Arizona Press. k. 1212. shii leung (shu lang) shii miu (shu miao) shui fan (shui fen) shui kwa (shui kua) sui seung yan (shui shang jen) Shui Sin (Shui Hsien) shuk in (shu yen) ShunTe Sian Sin Ku (Hsien Ku) sin t'it (hsien t'ieh) Sin Yan (Hsien Jen) sing 
  4. Great Britain. Colonial Office, Hong Kong. Government Information Services (1962). Hong Kong. Govt. Press. k. 37. The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan (people of the southern sea) or 'Sui Seung Yan 
  5. National Physical Laboratory (Great Britain) (1962). Report for the year ... H.M.S.O. k. 37. 
  6. Hong Kong: report for the year ... Government Press. 1961. k. 40. 
  7. Hong Kong, Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1962). Hong Kong annual report. H.M.S.O. k. 37. 
  8. Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hong Kong. Government Information Services (1960). Hong Kong. Govt. Press. k. 40. 
  9. Martin Hürlimann (1962). Hong Kong. Viking Press. k. 17. The Tanka are among the earliest of the region's inhabitants. They call themselves 'Sui Seung Yan', signifying 'those born on the waters'; for they have been a population afloat as far back as men can remember—their craft jostle each other most closely in the fishing port 
  10. Valery M. Garrett (1987). Traditional Chinese clothing in Hong Kong and South China, 1840–1980. Oxford University Press. k. 2. ISBN 0-19-584174-3. The Tanka dislike the name and prefer 'Sui seung yan', which means 'people who live on the water'. Because of their different physique and darker skin, they were traditionally thought by those living on the land to be a race of sea gypsies and not Chinese at all 
  11. Far Eastern economic review, Volume 24. Review Pub. Co. Ltd. 1958. k. 280. The name "Hoklo" is used by the Hoklo, but the Tanka will not use the name "Tanka" which they consider derogatory, using instead "Nam hoi yan" or "Sui seung yan". Shore dwellers however have few dealings with either race of people and tend to call them both "Tanka". The Pui Tanka dialects both belong to the western section of 
  12. Österreichische Leo-Gesellschaft, Görres-Gesellschaft, Anthropos Institute (1970). Anthropos, Volume 65. Zaunrith'sche Buch-, Kunst- und Steindruckerei. k. 249. Far better known are the Cantonese-speaking boat people. These are the groups known as "Tanka" (Mandarin "Tanchia") in most of the literature. 
  13. Eugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. k. 13. into two major groups: Cantonese ("Tanchia" or "Tanka" – a term of hatred) and Hoklo. The Hoklo speak a distinctive dialect of South Fukienese (South Min, Swatowese) 
  14. James Hayes (1996). Friends & teachers: Hong Kong and its people, 1953–87. Hong Kong University Press. k. 23. ISBN 962-209-396-5. Leaving aside the settled land population Hakka and Cantonese villagers, and the trickle of newcomers into the district, there were also the boat people, of whom the Tanka and Hoklo were the two principal groups. They were numerous and to be found everywhere in its waters 
  15. David Faure; Helen F. Siu (1995). David Faure; Helen F. Siu, eds. Down to earth: the territorial bond in South China. Stanford University Press. k. 93. ISBN 0-8047-2435-0. In the Hong Kong region, the existence of groups of sea fishermen other than Tanka was quite common. On nearby Peng Chau, both Cantonese and Hakka villagers undertook sea fishing..... However, in all such cases... occupational blurring did not mean... intermarriage between land based fishermen, who clung to their own kind, and the Tanka. ... the Tanka boat people of Cheung Chau were excluded from participation in the ...jiao festival. 
  16. Great Britain. Colonial Office, Hong Kong. Government Information Services (1970). Hong Kong. Govt. Press. k. 219. The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several 
  17. Hong Kong: report for the year ... Government Press. 1970. k. 219. 
  18. Grolier Incorporated (1999). The encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier Incorporated. k. 474. ISBN 0-7172-0131-7. In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier. 
  19. Scholastic Library Publishing (2006). Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1. Scholastic Library Pub. k. 474. ISBN 0-7172-0139-2. 
  20. The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier. 1981. k. 474. ISBN 0-7172-0112-0.