Lenga iwak

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Kapsul minyak iwak

Minyak iwak minangka minyak sing asale saka jaringan iwak sing berminyak . Minyak iwak ngemot asam lemak omega-3 asam eicosapentaenoic (EPA) lan asam docosahexaenoic (DHA), prekursor eicosanoid tartamtu sing dikenal bisa nyuda peradangan ing awak [1] [2] lan ningkatake hypertriglyceridemia . Wis sawetara kontroversi ing taun-taun pungkasan babagan peran minyak iwak ing penyakit kardiovaskular, kanthi analisis meta anyar duwe kesimpulan sing beda babagan dampak potensial kasebut. Bukti sing paling janjeni ndhukung suplemen kanggo nyegah pati jantung . [3]

Minyak iwak lan asam lemak omega-3 uga wis ditliti ing macem-macem kahanan kayata depresi klinis, [4] [5] kuatir, [6] [7] [8] kanker, lan degenerasi makula, nanging mupangate ing kahanan kasebut uga durung diverifikasi. [9]

Iwak sing digunakake minangka sumber kasebut sejatine ora ngasilake asam lemak omega-3, nanging nglumpukake kanthi nggunakake mikroalga utawa iwak mangsa sing nglumpukake asam lemak omega-3 . Iwak predator lemak kayata hiu, iwak pedang, ubin ubin, lan tuna albacore bisa uga akeh asam lemak omega-3 nanging, amarga posisine ing ndhuwur rantai panganan, spesies kasebut uga bisa nglumpukake zat beracun liwat biomagnifikasi . Amarga alasan iki, Badan Perlindungan Lingkungan Amerika Serikat nyaranake matesi konsumsi (utamane kanggo wanita umur subur) spesies iwak (predator) tartamtu (kayata tuna albacore, hiu, mackerel raja, ubin lan iwak pedhang ) amarga kontaminan beracun akeh merkuri . Dioksin, PCB lan chlordane, uga insektisida siklodien klorin liyane uga ana. [10] Iwak kaya protein lan panganan akuakultur vitamin liyane. Luwih saka 50 persen minyak iwak ing donya sing digunakake ing pakan akuakultur diwenehake menyang salmon sing ditandur . [11]

Minyak iwak laut lan banyu tawar beda karo isi asam arakidonik, EPA lan DHA. [12] Macem-macem spesies mulai saka ramping nganti lemu lan isi minyak ing jaringan kabukten beda-beda gumantung saka 0,7% nganti 15,5%. [13] Dheweke uga beda karo efek ing lipid organ. Panliten ngandhakake manawa ora ana hubungane antara asupan iwak total utawa kira-kira asupan asam lemak ga 3 saka kabeh iwak, lan omega serum − 3 konsentrasi asam lemak. [14] Mung asupan iwak lemak, utamane salmonid, lan perkiraan asupan EPA + DHA saka iwak lemak sing diamati bakal ana gandheng cenenge karo paningkatan serum EPA + DHA.

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Moghadasian, Mohammed H. (2008). "Advances in Dietary Enrichment with N-3 Fatty Acids". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 48 (5): 402–10. doi:10.1080/10408390701424303. PMID 18464030.
  2. Cleland, Leslieg; James, Michaelj; Proudman, Susannam (2006). "Fish oil: What the prescriber needs to know". Arthritis Research & Therapy. 8 (1): 679–81. doi:10.1186/ar1876. PMC 1526555. PMID 16542466.
  3. Maki, KC; Dicklin, MR (4 July 2018). "Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Glass Half Full or Time to Nail the Coffin Shut?". Nutrients. 10 (7): 864. doi:10.3390/nu10070864. PMC 6073248. PMID 29973554.
  4. Su, Kuan-Pin; Huang, Shih-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Winston W. (2003). "Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 13 (4): 267–71. doi:10.1016/S0924-977X(03)00032-4. PMID 12888186.
  5. Naliwaiko, K.; Araújo, R.L.F.; Da Fonseca, R.V.; Castilho, J.C.; Andreatini, R.; Bellissimo, M.I.; Oliveira, B.H.; Martins, E.F.; Curi, R. (2004). "Effects of Fish Oil on the Central Nervous System: A New Potential Antidepressant?". Nutritional Neuroscience. 7 (2): 91–99. doi:10.1080/10284150410001704525. PMID 15279495.
  6. Green, Pnina; Hermesh, Haggai; Monselise, Assaf; Marom, Sofi; Presburger, Gadi; Weizman, Abraham (2006). "Red cell membrane omega-3 fatty acids are decreased in nondepressed patients with social anxiety disorder". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 16 (2): 107–13. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.07.005. PMID 16243493.
  7. Yehuda, Shlomo; Rabinovitz, Sharon; Mostofsky, David I. (2005). "Mixture of essential fatty acids lowers test anxiety". Nutritional Neuroscience. 8 (4): 265–67. doi:10.1080/10284150500445795. PMID 16491653.
  8. Nemets, B.; Stahl, Z; Belmaker, RH (2002). "Addition of Omega-3 Fatty Acid to Maintenance Medication Treatment for Recurrent Unipolar Depressive Disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (3): 477–79. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.477. PMID 11870016.
  9. NIH Medline Plus (August 2015). "Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth". Dibukak ing 13 October 2017.
  10. Venus Nandi (2020-02-09). "Best fish to eat". Dibukak ing 9 February 2020.
  11. FAO: World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture 2008: Highlights of Special Studies|date=February 2020 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Rome.
  12. Innis, Sheila M.; Rioux, France M.; Auestad, Nancy; Ackman, Robert G. (1995). "Marine and freshwater fish oil varying in arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids differ in their effects on organ lipids and fatty acids in growing rats". The Journal of Nutrition. 125 (9): 2286–93. doi:10.1093/jn/125.9.2286. PMID 7666244.
  13. Gruger, E. H.; Nelson, R. W.; Stansby, M. E. (1 October 1964). "Fatty acid composition of oils from 21 species of marine fish, freshwater fish and shellfish". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 41 (10): 662–67. doi:10.1007/BF02661403.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. Philibert, A; Vanier, C; Abdelouahab, N; Chan, HM; Mergler, D (December 2006). "Fish intake and serum fatty acid profiles from freshwater fish". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (6): 1299–307. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.6.1299. PMID 17158409.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)