Lenga sawit

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Sawit

Lenga sawit minangka lenga sayur sing dijupuk saka mesocarp wit sawit, umume saka spesies Elaeis guineensis, [1] lan sithik saka spesies Elaeis oleifera lan Attalea maripa . Minyak sawit alamiah amarga kandungan alpha lan karoten sing dhuwur. Minyak sawit beda karo lenga inti klapa kernel (palm kernel oil) sing digawé saka inti buah sing padha. Lenga sawit uga beda karo klapa klapa sing diasilaké saka inti buah klapa ( Cocos nucifera ). Bentenané ana warna (lenga kernel sawit ora duwé karotenoid dadi ora abang), lan isi lemak jenuh. Minyak sawit ngemot 41% lemak jenuh, 81% lenga kernel sawit, lan lenga klapa 86%. [2]

Lenga sawit, kalebu lenga sing nduwéni lemak jenuh dhuwur. Minyak sawit semi-padhet ing suhu kamar lan duwé sawétara jinis lemak jenuh , asam lauric (0.1%), asam myristic (1%), asam stearic (5%), lan asam palmitic (44%). Minyak sawit uga duwé lemak tak jenuh ing bentuk asam oleic (39%), asam linoleat (10%), lan asam alpha linoleat (0.3%). [3] Kaya kabeh lenga sayur, lenga sawit ora ngemot kolesterol [4] sanajan konsumsi lemak jenuh dikenal dadi paningkatan kolesterol lipoprotein kapadhetan lan lipoprotein kapadhetan dhuwur amarga metabolisme asam lemak ing awak. [5] Minyak sawit uga GMO gratis, amarga ora ana lenga sawit sing diowahi genetik (GMO) sing dikembangaké kanggo ngasilaké lenga sawit.

Lenga sawit minangka bahan masak sing asring dipigunakaké ing negara-negara tropis ing Afrika, Asia Tenggara lan bagean Brasil . Panganggoné ing industri panganan komersial ing wilayah liya didorong biaya produksi sing kurang [6] lan stabilitas oksidatif nalika digunakaké kanggo digoreng. [7] [8]

Tanduran sawérnané sawit ngajak para aktivis lingkungan supaya kuwatir amarga karusakan alas sing akéh banget kanggo nindakaké pertanian monokultur sawit. Tanduran palem sawit iki nyebabaké kelangan habitat orangutan ing Indonesia, sing kalebu spesies kaancam. [9] Ing taun 2004, Meja Bunder babagan Kelapa Sawit Sustainable (RSPO) dibentuk kanggo ngatasi masalah kasebut. [10] Malaysia wiwit 1992 wis mbatesi ekspansi ladang sawit ing wilayah kasebut kanthi nindakaké peraturan ing wates tanah minimal negara dadi alas. [11] [12]

Minyak sawit murni sing diprodhuksi ing desa Jukwa, Ghana .

Cathethan sikil[besut | besut sumber]

Blok lenga sawit nuduhaké warna sing luwih entheng saka a
  1. Reeves, James B.; Weihrauch, John L.; Consumer and Food Economics Institute (1979). Composition of foods: fats and oils. Agriculture handbook 8-4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. k. 4. OCLC 5301713. 
  2. Harold McGee. On Food And Cooking: The Science And Lore Of The Kitchen, Scribner, 2004 edition. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1
  3. Cottrell, RC (1991). "Introduction: nutritional aspects of palm oil". The American journal of clinical nutrition 53 (4 Suppl): 989S–1009S. PMID 2012022. 
  4. US Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, 21 CFR 101.25 as amended in Federal Register July 19, 1990, Vol.55 No.139 pg.29472
  5. Mensink, RP; Katan, MB (1992). "Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials.". Arterioscler Thromb 12 (8): 911–?. PMID 1386252. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.12.8.911. 
  6. "Palm Oil Continues to Dominate Global Consumption in 2006/07" (PDF) (Press release). United States Department of Agriculture. June 2006. Dijupuk 22 September 2009. 
  7. Che Man, YB; Liu, J.L.; Jamilah, B.; Rahman, R. Abdul (1999). "Quality changes of RBD palm olein, soybean oil and their blends during deep-fat frying". Journal of Food Lipids 6 (3): 181–193. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4522.1999.tb00142.x. 
  8. Matthäus, Bertrand (2007). "Use of palm oil for frying in comparison with other high-stability oils". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109 (4): 400. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200600294. 
  9. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; Pongo pygmaeus. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/17975/0 . Accessed: 2012-04-12
  10. Natasha Gilbert (4 July 2012). "Palm-oil boom raises conservation concerns: Industry urged towards sustainable farming practices as rising demand drives deforestation". Nature. 
  11. Morales, Alex (18 November 2010). "Malaysia Has Little Room for Expanding Palm-Oil Production, Minister Says". Bloomberg. Dijupuk 1 March 2013. 
  12. Scott-Thomas, Caroline (17 September 2012). "French firms urged to back away from 'no palm oil' label claims". Foodnavigator. Dijupuk 7 March 2013.