Antropologi

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Antropologi (play /ænθrɵˈpɒləi/) iku tegesé ngèlmu sing nitèni patindhakané wong urip karo adat-istiadaté sarta tradhisiné. Èlmu iki duwé asal-usul jroning èlmu alam, humaniora, lan èlmu sosial.[1] Istilah "antropologi" saka basa Yunani anthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος), "manungsa", lan -logia (-λογία), "wacana" utawa "studi", lan pisanan dipigunakaké taun 1501 déning filsuf Jerman Magnus Hundt.[2]

Kawigatèn dhasar Antropologi yaiku "Apa sing ndhéfinisikaké Homo sapiens?", "Sapa nenek moyang Homo sapiens modhèrn?", "Apa ciri-ciri fisik manungsa?", "Kepriyé patindakané manungsa?", "Ngapa ana variasi lan prabédan antarané klompok-klompok sing béda saka manungsa?", "Kepriyé mangsa kepungkur évolusi saka Homo sapiens dipangaruhi organisasi sosial lan budaya?" lan sapanunggalé.

Ing Amérika Sarékat, antropologi kontèmporer biasané dipérang dadi papat sub-babagan: antropologi budaya (uga diarani "antropologi sosial", arkéologi, antropologi linguistik, lan antropologi fisik (utawa biologi).[3] Panyerakan "papat-babagan" antropologi disajèkaké ing akèh buku tèks kasarjanan[4] sarta program antropologi (tuladhané ing Michigan, Berkeley, Penn). Ing univèrsitas-univrsitas sing ana ing Inggris, lan akèh ing Eropah, "sub-babagan" iki asring dipapanaké ing départemèn kapisah lan dideleng minangka disiplin èlmu sing béda.[5]

Sub-babagan sosial lan budaya wisbanget dipangaruhi déning téori strukturalis lan pasca-modhèrn, uga minangka pagèsèran menyang arah masarakat modhèrn (ajang luwih khusus jroning komit para sosiolog). Sakwéné taun 1970an lan 1980an ana pagèsèran epistemologis adoh saka tradhisi positifisme sing sebagéyan gedhé digenahaké disiplin.[6] Sakwéné pagèsèran iki, pitakonan-pitakonan suwé ngenani sifat lan prodhuksi kawruh muncul ngisi papan utama jroning antropologi budaya lan sosial. Béda karo, arkéologi, antropologi biologi, lan antropologi lingustik sebagéyan gedhé isih positivis. Amarga pabédan ing epistemologi, antropologi minangka disiplin duwé kekurangan kamanunggalan sakwéné sapérangan dékadé akir-akir iki. Masalah iki uga wis nyebabaké départemèn nyimpang, minangka conto nalika taun akademik 1998–9 ing Univèrsitas Stanford, ing ngendi "para èlmuwan" lan "non-èlmuwan" kapérang dadi rong départemèn: èlmu antropologi lan antropologi budaya & sosial;[7] départemèn iki banjur digabung manèh nalika taun akademik 2008–9.[8]


Uga delengen[sunting | sunting sumber]

Réferènsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Wolf, Eric (1994) Perilous Ideas: Race, Culture, People. Current Anthropology 35: 1-7. p.227
  2. ^ Dieserud, Juul (1908) The Scope and Content of the Science of Anthropology London:Open Court Publishing ISBN 0-8021-3943-4
  3. ^ AAAnet.org
  4. ^ (Kottak, C)
  5. ^ Layton, Robert (1998) An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Geertz, Behar, Clifford & James
  7. ^ Stanford University Bulletin 1998-1999 pg. 213, Sul-derivatives.stanford.edu
  8. ^ Stanford University Bulletin 2007-2008 pg. 269

Wacan terusan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kamus lan ensiklopèdi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barfield, Thomas (1997). The dictionary of anthropology. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.
  • Levinson, David and Melvin Ember. eds. (1996) Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. (4 vols.) New York: Henry Holt.

Cathetan lapangan lan riwayat saka antropolog[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barley, Nigel (1983) The innocent anthropologist: notes from a mud hut. London: British Museum Publications.
  • Geertz, Clifford (1995) After the fact: two countries, four decades, one anthropologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1967) Tristes tropiques. Translated from the French by John Russell. New York: Atheneum.
  • Malinowski, Bronisław (1967) A diary in the strict sense of the term. Translated by Norbert Guterman. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World.
  • Mead, Margaret (1972) Blackberry winter: my earlier years. New York: William Marrow.
  • Mead, Margaret, (1977) Letters from the field, 1925 - 1975. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Rabinow, Paul. (1977) Reflections on fieldwork in Morocco.

Sajarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Asad, Talal, ed. (1973) Anthropology & the Colonial Encounter. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
  • Barth, Fredrik, Andre Gingrich, Robert Parkin, One Discipline, Four Ways: British, German, French, and American anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • D'Andrade, R. "The Sad Story of Anthropology: 1950-1999." In E. L. Cerroni-Long, ed. Anthropological Theory in North America. Westport: Berin & Garvey 1999. Anthro.ucsd.edu
  • Darnell, Regna. (2001) Invisible Genealogies: A History of Americanist Anthropology. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Harris, Marvin. (2001[1968]) The rise of anthropological theory: a history of theories of culture. AltaMira Press. Walnut Creek, CA.
  • Kehoe, Alice B. (1998) The Land of Prehistory: A Critical History of American Archaeology.
  • Lewis, Herbert S. (1998) "The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and its Consequences." American Anthropologist, 100: 716-731. Interscience.wiley.com, Lewis
  • Lewis, Herbert S. (2004) "Imagining Anthropology's History." Reviews in Anthropology, v. 33.
  • Lewis, Herbert S. (2005) "Anthropology, the Cold War, and Intellectual History. In R. Darnell & F.W. Gleach, eds. Histories of Anthropology Annual, Vol. I.
  • Pels, Peter & Oscar Salemink, eds. (2000) Colonial Subjects: Essays on the Practical History of Anthropology.
  • Price, David. (2004) Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists.
  • Stocking, George, Jr. (1968) Race, Culture and Evolution. New York: Free Press.
  • Trencher, Susan. (2000) Mirrored Images: American Anthropology and American Culture, 1960-1980.
  • Gisi, Lucas Marco. (2007) Einbildungskraft und Mythologie. Die Verschränkung von Anthropologie und Geschichte im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.

Buku tèks lan karya-karya teoritis utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Clifford, James and George E. Marcus (1986) Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Geertz, Clifford (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
  • Harris, Marvin (1997) Culture, People, Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology (7th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
  • Salzmann, Zdeněk. (1993) Language, culture, and society: an introduction to linguistic anthropology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Shweder, Richard A., and Robert A. LeVine, eds. (1984) Culture Theory: essays on mind, self, and emotion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Pranala njaba[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cabang utama jroning Èlmu sosial
Antropologi | Ékonomi | Géografi | Linguistik | Manajemen | Pendhidhikan | Èlmu pulitik | Psikologi | Sajarah | Sosiologi

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