Sujarah wong Kurdhi

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Gendéra Kurdhistan

Wong Kurdhi iku golongan bangsa etno-linguistik kang ana ing Iran lan ing sujarahé dumunung ana ing pagunungan sadawané bang Lor Ranu Van lan Ranu Urmia, wewengkon géografis kang kanthi kolektif dirujuk minangka Kurdhistan. Akèh-akèhé wong Kurdhi celathu nganggo dhialèk Kurmanji utawa Sorani, kang kaloroné kalebu Basa Kurdhi.

Ana manéka warna hipotesis kang ngrujuk marang leluriné Bangsa Kurdhi, kaya ta Carduchoi saka Purwakala Klasik. Wangsa Kurdhi kang paling kawitan ing sajeroning wewengkon pamaréntahan Islam (saka abad angka 10 nganti abad angka 12) ya iku para Hasanwayhids, para Marwanids, para Rawadids, para Shaddadids, dilanjutaké déning Wangsa Ayyubiyyah kang diwiwiti déning Shalahuddin al Ayyubi. Pancakara Chaldiran taun 1514 kuwi minangka sawijining titik balik kang wigati ing sujarah bangsa Kurdhi, mratandhani sekaitan antarané Bangsa Kurdhi lan Kamaharajan Ottoman. Carita Sharafnameh taun 1597 minangka carita babagan sujarah bangsa Kurdhi kang kawitan. Sajarah bangsa Kurdhi ing abad angka 20 ditandhai karo tumuwuhé rasa kabangsan bangsa Kurdhi kang nyungku marang ancasé kanggo nggayuh Kurdhistan kang swatantra kaya kang dirancang addhédhasar Kasarujukan Sèvres ing taun 1920. Swatantra sapérangan kasil digayuh déning Kurdhistan Abang (1923–1926) lan déning Kurdhistan Irak (wiwit taun 1991), déné mligi ing Kurdhistan Turki, carukan mawa gaman antarané kelompok kraman wong Kurdhi lan wadya Turki agegaman kadadéan saka 1984 nganti 1999, lan wewengkon kuwi panggah ora tentrem kanthi anané kawirotan anyar ana ing taun 2000-nan.

Jeneng[besut | besut sumber]

Étnonim Kurd (Basa Jawa:Kurdhi) purwané saka toponim kuna ing lembah kali Tigris udhik. Miturut sawenèh ancangan, kuwi asal mulané saka in Pérsian Tengah minangka kwrt-, istilah kanggo "nomad; tent-dweller" (nomadhik). [Note 1] Sawisé panaklukan Pérsi déning Muslim, istilah iki dijupuk dadi istilah Arabik minangka kurd-, lan digunakaké kusus kanggo wong-wong nomadhik.[Note 2] Kanggoné Pérsian Tengah tembung nomina kwrt- kang asal mulané saka toponim kuna, jeneng iki uga ana kang matara manawa purwané mèmper toponimé Qardu ing Jaman Prunggu,Ǧūdī, (dianggo ing basa Kurdhi dadi Cûdî). [4][5] Jeneng iku bakalé panggah digunakaké ing kala kawuri klasik minangka èlemèn pratama ing toponim Corduene, lan panduduké, kang disebutaké karo Xenophon minangka wong-wong Carduchoi kang nentang mundhuré para Sepuluh Ewu liwat pagunungan ing sisih lor Mésopotamia. Pandengan iki dijurung déning sawenèh sumber akadhémis kang nganggep Corduene minangka wewengkon proto-Kurdhi.[6] Saliyané, kwrt- purwané uga bisa saka jeneng wong-wong Cyrtii.[Note 3]

Miturut sawenèh sumber, nganti abad angka 16, sajak ana parkembangan jatidhiri bangsa kang ditandhai déning istilah Kurd (Kurdhi) ing antarané kelompok-kelompok Irania Lor-Kulon,[Note 4][Note 5][Note 6][Note 7] tanpa anané rujukan marang basa Irania kang kusus.[3][Note 6]

Sujana Kurdhi Mehrdad Izady mratélakaké yèn sembarang golongan nomadhik kang dijuluki kurdhi nalika jaman Arab tengahan iku dianggep "wong ètnis Kurdhi asli", lan sawaliké, kang banjur dijuluki dudu Kurdhi iku turunané wong-wong nomadhik kuwi nanging "wis misah jatidhiri ètnis kawit pungkasan jaman tengahan."[Note 8]

Sherefxan Bidlisi ing abad angka 16 nyatakaké yèn pambagéyan "Kurdhi" iku cacahé ana papat: Kurmanj, Lur, Kalhor lan Guran, kang nduwé dhialék utawa warna basa kang béda-béda. Paul (2008) medhar yèn panganggoning tembung Kurd ing abad angka 16 miturut cathetaning Bidlisi bokmenawa wis mèmper karo jatidhiri ètnis "Kurdhi" minangka panunggalan suku Kurmanj, Kalhur, lan Guran ing Iran Lor-Kulon kang nembé cinipta, tanpa minangkani panggolonging bangsa miturut basa.[Note 9] Some links in Eastern Europe and other areas of the Near East and Mideast are also evident from t Sawenèh sekakel ing Éropah Timur lan wewengkon liyané ing Wétan Cedhak lan Wétan Tengah uga cetha asalé saka kala kawitan. Og, kancané Moses, ayaké minangka Kahn Agung kang kawitan. Jeneng kaya kulawarga Okur utawa Okurowski utawa Ogrosky lan Kurman uga ana sambung rapeté karo para Kurdhi lan Kamaharajan Kurdhi Kuna. Para Okuralti utawa Mongolia Kuralti uga nduwé manéka gegayutan marang para Kurdhi.

Cathetan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Books from the early Islamic era, including those containing legends like the Shahnameh and the Middle Persian Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan and other early Islamic sources provide early attestation of the term kurd in the sense of "Iranian nomads". A. The term Kurd in the Middle Persian documents simply means nomad and tent-dweller and could be attributed to any Iranian ethnic group having similar characteristics.[1] G. "It is clear that kurt in all the contexts has a distinct social sense, "nomad, tent-dweller"."The Pahlavi materials clearly show that kurd in pre-Islamic Iran was a social label, still a long way off from becoming an ethnonym or a term denoting a distinct group of people"[2]
  2. "The ethnic label "Kurd" is first encountered in Arabic sources from the first centuries of the Islamic era; it seemed to refer to a specific variety of pastoral nomadism, and possibly to a set of political units, rather than to a linguistic group: once or twice, "Arabic Kurds" are mentioned. By the 10th century, the term appears to denote nomadic and/or transhumant groups speaking an Iranian language and mainly inhabiting the mountainous areas to the South of Lake Van and Lake Urmia, with some offshoots in the Caucasus...If there was a Kurdish-speaking subjected peasantry at that time, the term was not yet used to include them."[3]
  3. "Evidently, the most reasonable explanation of this ethnonym must be sought for in its possible connections with the Cyrtii (Cyrtaei) of the Classical authors."[7]
  4. The development of the Kurdish language as a separate dialect group within Northwest Iranian seems to follow a similar time-frame; linguistic innovations characteristic of the Kurdish group date to the New Iranian period (10th century onward). Texts that are identifiably Kurdish first appear in the 16th century. See Paul (2008): "Any attempt to study or describe the history of the Kurdish (Kd.) language(s) faces the problem that, from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE. [...] The following sound changes do not—from the available evidence—occur before the NIr. period. The change of postvocalic *-m >-v/-w (N-/C-Kd.) is one of the most characteristic features of Kurdish (e.g., in Kd. nāv/nāw “name”). It occurs also in a small number of other WIr. idioms like Vafsī and in certain N-Balōči dialects"[8]
  5. "The term Kurd in the middle ages was applied to all nomads of Iranian origin"[9]
  6. a b "If we take a leap forward to the Arab conquest we find that the name Kurd has taken a new meaning becoming practically synonymous with 'nomad', if nothing more pejorative"[10]
  7. "We thus find that about the period of the Arab conquest a single ethnic term Kurd (plur. Akrād) was beginning to be applied to an amalgamation of Iranian or iranicised tribes."[11]
  8. "The Kurds mentioned in the classical and medieval sources were bona fide ethnic Kurds, and the forbearers of the modern Kurds and/or those who have acquired separate ethnic identities in the southern Zagros since the end of the medieval period."[12]
  9. Paul (2008) writes about the problem of attaining a coherent definition of "Kurdish language" within the Northwestern Iranian dialect continuum.[8] "There is no unambiguous evolution of Kurdish from Middle Iranian, as "from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE." Paul further states: "Linguistics itself, or dialectology, does not provide any general or straightforward definition of at which point a language becomes a dialect (or vice versa). To attain a fuller understanding of the difficulties and questions that are raised by the issue of the “Kurdish language,” it is therefore necessary to consider also non-linguistic factors."[8]


Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Safrastian, Kurds and Kurdistan, The Harvill Press, 1948, p. 16 and p. 31.
  2. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009.
  3. a b Martin van Bruinessen, "The ethnic identity of the Kurds", in: Ethnic groups in the Republic of Turkey, compiled and edited by Peter Alford Andrews with Rüdiger Benninghaus [=Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Reihe B, Nr.60]. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwich Reichert, 1989, pp. 613–21. [1]
  4. G. S. Reynolds, A Reflection on Two Qurʾānic Words (Iblīs and Jūdī), with Attention to the Theories of A. Mingana, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 124, No. 4 (October –December, 2004), pp. 675–689. (see p.683, 684 & 687)
  5. Ilya Gershevitch, William Bayne Fisher, The Cambridge History of Iran: The Median and Achamenian Periods, 964 pp., Cambridge University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-521-20091-1, ISBN 978-0-521-20091-2, (see footnote of p.257)
  6. Revue des études arméniennes, vol.21, 1988-1989, p.281, By Société des études armeniennes, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Published by Imprimerie nationale, P. Geuthner, 1989.
  7. G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009
  8. a b c Ludwig Paul "HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE", Encyclopedia Iranica (2008)
  9. Wladimir Ivanon, "The Gabrdi dialect spoken by the Zoroastrians of Persia", Published by G. Bardim 1940. pg 42)
  10. David N. Mackenzie, "The Origin of Kurdish", Transactions of Philological Society, 1961, pp 68–86.
  11. "Kurds" in Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. accessed 2007.
  12. Izady, Mehrdad (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. The Kurds: A Concise History And Fact Book. k. 185. ISBN 978-0844817279.