Saffron

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Safron
Crocus saffron, Crocus sativus, kanthi stigma lan gaya layung sing jelas
'Utas' safron, dipetik saka kembang baya banjur dikeringake

Saffron (pocapan /ˈsæfrən/ utawa /ˈsæfrɒn/ ) [1] iku bumbu asalé saka kembang saka crocus sativus, umum dikenal minangka "saffron crocus". Stigma lan gaya layung sing jelas, diarani utas, dikumpulake lan dikeringake kanggo digunakake utamane minangka bahan bumbu lan pewarna ing panganan. Saffron wis suwe dadi rempah-rempah paling larang ing donya. [2] [3] [4] Sanajan sawetara keraguan isih ana, [5] diprecaya manawa safron asale saka Iran . [6] Nanging, Yunani lan Mesopotamia uga disaranake minangka wilayah asal usul tanduran iki: Harold McGee [7] negesake manawa dijenengi ing Yunani utawa cedhak ing jaman Perunggu. C. sativus bisa uga wujud triploid saka Crocus cartwrightianus, [8] sing uga dikenal minangka "safron liar". [9] [10] [11] Crocus safron alon-alon nyebar ing saindenging Eurasia lan banjur digawa menyang bagean-bagean ing Afrika Lor, Amerika Utara, lan Oceania .

Rasa Saffron lan aroma iodoform - kaya wangi utawa kaya jerami asil saka fitokimia picrocrocin lan safranal . [12] [13] Uga ngemot pigmen karotenoid , crocin, sing menehi warna kuning keemasan kaya ing piring lan tekstil. Sejarah sing direkam dibuktekake ing risalah botani Asiria SM abad kaping 7 [14] lan wis didol lan digunakake nganti ewonan taun. Ing abad kaping 21, Iran ngasilake udakara 90% saka total safron. [15] [16] Kanthi rega $ 5,000 saben kg utawa luwih, safron minangka rempah-rempah paling larang ing donya.

[17]

Saffron Flowers
Kembang krokus sing ngasilake stigma safron abang
Saffron onions
Corms
Saffron harvest
Panen saffron, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Provinsi Razavi Khorasan, Iran
Sargol saffron

Referensi[besut | besut sumber]

  1. "Saffron – Definition and More". Merriam-Webster. Dibukak ing 21 November 2012.
  2. Rau 1969.
  3. Hill 2004.
  4. "World's COSTLIEST spice blooms in Kashmir". Rediff. Dibukak ing 7 January 2013.
  5. Gresta, F.; Lombardo, G. M.; Siracusa, L.; Ruberto, G. (2008). "Saffron, an alternative crop for sustainable agricultural systems. A review". Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 28 (1): 95–112. doi:10.1051/agro:2007030.
  6. Ghorbani, R.; Koocheki, A. (2017). "Sustainable Cultivation of Saffron in Iran". In Lichtfouse, Eric (ed.). Sustainable Agriculture Reviews (PDF). Springer. pp. 170–171. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-58679-3. ISBN 978-3-319-58679-3.
  7. Harold McGee. On Food and Cooking, 2004 edition, pg 422. Scribner, New York, NY,
  8. Grilli Caiola 2003.
  9. Kafi et al. 2006.
  10. Schmidt, Thomas; Heitkam, Tony; Liedtke, Susan; Schubert, Veit; Menzel, Gerhard (2019). "Adding color to a century-old enigma: multi-color chromosome identification unravels the autotriploid nature of saffron (Crocus sativus) as a hybrid of wild Crocus cartwrightianus cytotypes". New Phytologist. 222 (4): 1965–1980. doi:10.1111/nph.15715. ISSN 1469-8137. PMID 30690735.
  11. Harpke, Dörte; Meng, Shuchun; Rutten, Twan; Kerndorff, Helmut; Blattner, Frank R. (2013-03-01). "Phylogeny of Crocus (Iridaceae) based on one chloroplast and two nuclear loci: Ancient hybridization and chromosome number evolution". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 66 (3): 617–627. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.10.007. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 23123733.
  12. McGee 2004.
  13. Katzer, G. (2010). "Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)". Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Dibukak ing 1 December 2012.
  14. Russo, Dreher & Mathre 2003.
  15. Hooker, Lucy (2017-09-13). "The problem for the world's most expensive spice" (ing basa Inggris). Dibukak ing 2020-01-12.
  16. Fierberg, Emma. "Why saffron is the world's most expensive spice". Business Insider. Dibukak ing 2020-01-12.
  17. Monks, Keiron (3 September 2015). "Iran's homegrown treasure: the spice that costs more than gold". CNN. Dibukak ing 22 January 2016.