Kumkuma

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Kumkuma
Kembang kumkuma saka wit kumkuma (Crocus sativus).

Kumkuma (saka basa Sangsekerta: कुङ्कुम; Latin: kuṅkuma) iku bumbu kang dipikolèh saka kembang wit kumkuma (Crocus sativus). Kumkuma racaké digaringaké kanggo didadèkaké bumbu lan pawarna panganan. Kumkuma wis suwé dadi bumbu kang larang dhéwé ing sadonya.[1][2][3] Sanajan durung pesthi,[4] diprecaya asaling wit kumkuma saka Iran.[5] Mangkonoa, Yunani lan Mésopotamia uga dinuga minangka papan asaling wit iki: Harold McGee[6] kandha yèn wit kumkuma dipomahaké ing Yunani utawa ing sacedhaké nalika Jaman Prunggu. C. sativus bokmanawa minangka wujud triploid saka Crocus cartwrightianus, kang uga diparabi "kumkuma alas".[7][8][9] Kembang kumkuma alon-alon sumebar ing saindenging Éurasia lan banjur digawa menyang manéka laladan ing Afrika Lor, Amérika Lor, lan Oséania .

Rasa lan gandaning kumkuma kang kaya damèn asal saka fitokimia aran pikrokrosin lan safranal.[10][11] Kumkuma uga ngemu pigmèn karoténoid aran krosin, kang mènèhi warna kuning emas marang panganan lan jarit. Cathetan sajarah kang nulisaké kumkuma ana ing layang tetanèn Asiria saka abad angka 7 SM[12] lan wis didagangaké sarta dianggo éwonan taun. Ing abad angka 21, Iran ngasilake udakara 90% saka gunggung kumkuma sadonya kanthi mutu kang apik dhéwé.[13][14] Mawa rega USD 5.000 watara sakilogramé, kumkuma dadi bumbu kang larang dhéwé ing sadonya.[15]

Piridan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Rau 1969.
  2. Hill 2004.
  3. "World's COSTLIEST spice blooms in Kashmir". Rediff. Dibukak ing 7 January 2013.
  4. Gresta, F.; Lombardo, G. M.; Siracusa, L.; Ruberto, G. (2008). "Saffron, an alternative crop for sustainable agricultural systems. A review". Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 28 (1): 95–112. doi:10.1051/agro:2007030.
  5. Ghorbani, R.; Koocheki, A. (2017). "Sustainable Cultivation of Saffron in Iran". In Lichtfouse, Eric (ed.). Sustainable Agriculture Reviews (PDF). Springer. pp. 170–171. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-58679-3. ISBN 978-3-319-58679-3.
  6. Harold McGee. On Food and Cooking, 2004 edition, pg 422. Scribner, New York, NY,
  7. Kafi et al. 2006.
  8. Schmidt, Thomas; Heitkam, Tony; Liedtke, Susan; Schubert, Veit; Menzel, Gerhard (2019). "Adding color to a century-old enigma: multi-color chromosome identification unravels the autotriploid nature of saffron (Crocus sativus) as a hybrid of wild Crocus cartwrightianus cytotypes". New Phytologist. 222 (4): 1965–1980. doi:10.1111/nph.15715. ISSN 1469-8137. PMID 30690735.
  9. Harpke, Dörte; Meng, Shuchun; Rutten, Twan; Kerndorff, Helmut; Blattner, Frank R. (2013-03-01). "Phylogeny of Crocus (Iridaceae) based on one chloroplast and two nuclear loci: Ancient hybridization and chromosome number evolution". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 66 (3): 617–627. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.10.007. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 23123733.
  10. McGee 2004.
  11. Katzer, G. (2010). "Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)". Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Dibukak ing 1 December 2012.
  12. Russo, Dreher & Mathre 2003.
  13. Hooker, Lucy (2017-09-13). "The problem for the world's most expensive spice" (ing basa Inggris). Dibukak ing 2020-01-12.
  14. Fierberg, Emma. "Why saffron is the world's most expensive spice". Business Insider. Dibukak ing 2020-01-12.
  15. Monks, Keiron (3 September 2015). "Iran's homegrown treasure: the spice that costs more than gold". CNN. Dibukak ing 22 January 2016.

Kapustakan[besut | besut sumber]