Sajarah Batur Tukon

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Sajarah Batur Tukon ya iku sajarah anané batur tukon kang nyrambahi budaya, bangsa, lan kapitayan (agama), saka jaman kuna nganti wektu saiki. Sanajan mangkono, posisi batur tukon sacara legal, sosial, lan ékonomi iku béda-béda miturut sistemé, papané lan wektuné.[1]

Batur tukon iki arang anané ing populasi kang dumadi saka populasi hunter-gatherer[2], amarga batur tukon iki tuwuh sangisore sistem tataran sosial (stratifikasi sosial)[3]. Batur tukon wiwit dilakokaké ing kauripan masarakat kang paling pisanan, (kaya ta Sumer ing Mésopotamia,[4] kang bisa ditlesih wektuné ing kala kawuri saka 3500 BC). Batur tukon uga kasebut ing Code of Hammurabi Mésopotamia (c. 1860 BC), kang dirujuk minangka sawijining institusi kang diyasa.[5] Batur tukon dadi umum sajroning Éropa nalikané Dark Ages lan terus tekan Jaman Tengahan. Perang antarané Bizantium lan Osmani (1265–1479) lan perang Osmani ing Éropah (abad ka-14 nganti abad ka- 20) kasil nawan batur tukon Kristen kanthi gunggung kang akèh. Wong Walanda, wong Perancis, wong Spanyol, wong Portugis, wong Inggris, wong Arab, lan saweneh krajan Afrika Kulon duwé peran kang wigati ing padagangan batur tukon ing wewengkon Atlantik, utamané sawisé 1600.

Sanajan batur tukon iku wis ora diéntukaké manèh ing saindenging donya (kajaba anané buruh tahanan),[6] pangedolan manungsa isih dadi masalah internasional, lan yèn diwetara, nganti taun 2013, wus ana udakara 25-40 yuta wong kang didadèkaké batur tukon, akèh-akèhé ing Asia.[7]

Antaraning taun Perang Sipil Sudan Kaloro ing taun 1983–2005, akèh wong kang didadèkaké batur tukon.[8] Bukti-bukti anané sistem batur tukon lan pangedolan bocah-bocah ing sawijining kebon kakao ing Afrika Kulon, nuli katon udakara ing taun 1990-an.[9] Batur tukon terus lumaku nganti abad ka-21. Sanajan Mauritania ndadèkaké batur tukon minangka sawijining tumindak kriminal ing sasi Agustus 2007,[10] audakara 600.000 wong, utawa 20% saka populasiné Mauritania, isih akèh kang didadèkaké budhak, lan akèh saka wong-wong iku kang dadi batur utang. [11]

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Klein, Herbert S.; III, Ben Vinson (2007). African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (ed. 2nd). New York [etc.]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195189421. 
  2. Smith, Eric Alden; Hill, Kim; Marlowe, Frank; Nolin, David; Wiessner, Polly; Gurven, Michael; Bowles, Samuel; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian (February 2010). "Wealth Transmission and Inequality Among Hunter-Gatherers". Current Anthropology 51 (1): 19–34. PMC 2999363. PMID 21151711. doi:10.1086/648530. Summary characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCSS). [...] Social stratification [: ...] Hereditary slavery 24% [...]. 
  3. Wanzola, Hamba (30 November 2012). Rediscovering the Hidden World: The Changing Human Geography of Kongo. Xlibris Corporation. k. 72. ISBN 978-1479751914. Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations as slavery depends on a system of social stratification. 
  4. Tetlow, Elisabeth Meier (2004). "Sumer". Women, Crime and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society: Volume 1: The Ancient Near East. Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society 1. New York: A&C Black. k. 7. ISBN 9780826416285. Dijupuk 17 Mar 2019. In Sumer, as in most ancient societies, the institution of slavery existed as an integral part of the social and economic structure. Sumer was not, however, a slavery-based economy. 
  5. "Mesopotamia: The Code of Hammurabi". Diarsip saka sing asli ing 14 May 2011. e.g. Prologue, "the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves" Code of Laws No. 307, "If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man". 
  6. "Anti-Slavery Society". Anti-slaverysociety.addr.com. Dijupuk 4 December 2011. 
  7. "Inaugural Global Slavery Index Reveals more Than 29 Million people Living In Slavery". Global Slavery Index 2013. 4 October 2013. Dijupuk 17 October 2013. 
  8. "Slavery, Abduction and Forced Servitude in Sudan". US Department of State. 22 May 2002. Dijupuk 20 March 2014. 
  9. 5 Minutes 10 Minutes. "West is master of slave trade guilt". Theaustralian.news.com.au. Dijupuk 4 December 2011. 
  10. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". BBC News. 9 August 2007. Dijupuk 4 December 2011. 
  11. "The Abolition season on BBC World Service". BBC. Dijupuk 4 December 2011.