Identitas gender

Saka Wikipédia Jawa, bauwarna mardika basa Jawa
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

Idhéntitas jender carané pangertén lan kesadaran saka wong bab jènderé  dhéwé.[1][2] Idhentitas jènder wong bisa slaras karo jinis kang ditetepake ing lair utawa iku temené pancén béda.[3] Kabéh masyarakat wis ngreténi saka kategori jènder  minangka basis kanggo tatanan saka idhéntitas sosial wong lan ing hubungan karo wong liya.[4] Biyasanè, bédanè kang paling prasaja ana ing sipat sing digandhèngakè karo jinis kelamin lanang lan wadon[5] kang uga diarani minangka bab jènder. Kekarepané iku uga kanggo ngagengaken imbuhan saka bab- bab sing dianggep lanang lan feminin ing kabéh aspèk saka jinis lan jinis kelamin: jinis biologi, idhéntitas jèndér, lan jèndér expression.[6] Sauntara kuwi, ing sawetara masyarakat ana sing individu sing ora ngenali awaké kanggo bagéyan utawa kabèh saka aspèk jinis kelamin sing diutus kanggo wong-wong mau adhedhasar jinis biologi.[7][8] Sawetara individu sing diklasifikasikaké minangka wong saka transgender utawa syarat. Ing sawetara komunitas liyané uga, ana kategori  jènder katelu.

Idhéntitas jénder iku inti saka wong umume kawangun nalika telung taun.[9][10] Sawisé telung taun, bakal dadi angel banget kanggo ngganti idhéntitas jénder sauntara kuwi, yén upaya digawé ganti iku bisa nimbulaké serangn saka disforia jénder.[11] sakliyané biologi faktor sosial lan faktor wis diusulaké minangka gadhah pengaruh ing tatanan saka identitas gender.

Ing wektu saka tatanan[besut | besut sumber]

Ana sawetara teori babagan nalika lan carane idhéntitas jènder saka wong kawangun. Nanging, panalitén sak iki nyedhaki angèl amarga saka kemampuan kanggo ngomong anak kang winates kanggo mimpin panalitén wis kanggo nggawe pemanggih adhedhasar bukti langsung. John Money nyebutaké bocah-bocah  bisa duwé  saka lan lampiran kanggo jènder miwiti antarané umur 18 sasi nganti rong taun. Lawrence Kohlberg ing tangan liyané nyariosaken dhateng kita bilih identitas jènder wis durung kawangun nganti umur telung taun.[11] Iku wis digunakake mangertos sing inti saka idhéntitas jènder wis kawangun kuat ing umur telung taun.[11] Sawetara sumber liyané nalika iku nyebataken bilih idhéntitas jènder wis saya kawangun ing umur 3-4 taun.[12] Ing jalur iki, anak bisa nggawè unequivocal statement bab sing jènder[11] lan  kanggo milih aktivitas lan olanan sing dirating miturut jenis kelamin[11] (kayata boneka kanggo bocah-bocah wadon lan bangunan pemblokiran kanggo lanang),[13] senajan padha uga durung ngerti mbek saka jinis kelamin sing padha duwe. Sawisé telung taun saka umur, jenis kelamin idhéntitas inti banget angel kanggo bakal diganti nalika ing gaweyan kanggo owah-owahan bisa nimbulaké disforia jènder.[11][14] Tatanan final saka idhéntitas jènder punika ing sawetara saka umur patang taun[15] nganti enem taun[11][16] lan terus menyang remaja utawa rada gedhé.

Referensi[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Morrow, D. F.; Messinger, L., ed. (2006). Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression in Social Work Practice. Columbia University Press. k. 8. ISBN 0231501862. Gender identity refers to an individual's personal sense of identity as masculine or feminine, or some combination thereof  Punjul saka siji saka editor-name-list parameters sing kudu diisi (pitulung)Punjul saka siji saka editor-name-list parameters sing kudu diisi (pitulung)
  2. American Psychological Association (2015). "Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming People". American Psychologist 70 (9): 832–864. doi:10.1037/a0039906. 
  3. "Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Definitions". Human Rights Campaign. 
  4. Moghadam, V. M. (1992). "Patriarchy and the Politics of Gender in Modernizing Societies: Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan". International Sociology 7 (1): 35–53. doi:10.1177/026858092007001002. All societies have gender systems. 
  5. Carlson, N. R.; Heth, C. D. (2009), "Sensation", in Carlson, N. R., Psychology: the Science of Behaviour (ed. 4th), Pearson, kk. 140–141, ISBN 9780205645244. 
  6. Eller, J. D. (2015). Culture and Diversity in the United States: So Many Ways to Be American. Routledge. k. 137. ISBN 1317575784. ... most Western societies, including the United States, traditionally operate with a binary notion of sex/gender...  line feed character ing |title= ing posisi 44 (pitulung)line feed character ing |title= ing posisi 44 (pitulung)
  7. MacKenzie, G. O. (1994). Transgender Nation. Bowling Green State University Popular Press. k. 43. ISBN 0879725966. ... transvestites existed in almost all societies. 
  8. Zastrow, C. (2013). Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People. Brooks Cole. k. 234. ISBN 128554580X. There are records of males and females crossing over throughout history and in virtually every culture. It is simply a naturally occurring part of all societies. 
  9. Kalbfleisch, P. J.; Cody, M. J. (1995). Gender, Power, and Communication in Human Relationships. Psychology Press. ISBN 0805814043. 
  10. Gallagher, A. M.; Kaufman, J. C. (2005). Gender Differences in Mathematics: An Integrative Psychological Approach. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82605-5. 
  11. a b c d e f g Boles 2013.
  12. Bryjak, G. J.; Soraka, M. P. (1997). Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World. Allyn & Bacon. kk. 209–245. 
  13. Doob, C. B. (2012). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Routledge. 
  14. Coleman, E. (1982). "Developmental stages of the coming out process". Journal of Homosexuality 7 (2-3): 31–43. Core gender and sex-role identities are well-formed by the age of 3 (Money & Ehrhardt, 1972). This is believed because attempts to reassign gender identity after age 3 result in further gender dysphoria. 
  15. Kleeman, J. A. (1971). "The establishment of core gender identity in normal girls. I.(a) Introduction;(b) Development of the ego capacity to differentiate". Archives of Sexual Behavior 1 (2): 103–116. doi:10.1007/BF01541055. Though gender identity formation continues into young adulthood and core gender identity establishment extends into the fourth year and possibly longer, core gender identity is fairly firmly formed by age 3[.] 
  16. Stein, M. T.; Zucker, K. J.; Dixon, S. D. (1997). "Sammy: Gender Identity Concerns in a 6-Year-Old Boy". Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 18 (3): 178–182.