Pteranodon

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Pteranodon
Temporal range: Mid-Late Cretaceous
Pteranodon sternbergi
Klasifikasi èlmiah
krajan: Animalia
filum: Chordata
kelas: Sauropsida
ordo: Pterosauria
Suborder: Pterodactyloidea
Superkulawarga: Ornithocheiroidea
kulawarga: Pteranodontidae
Genus: Pteranodon
Marsh, 1876
Species
  • P. longiceps (type)
  • P. sternbergi

Pteranodon (uniné /tɨˈrænədɒn/; saka basa Yunani Kuno πτερ- "swiwi" lan αν-οδων"rak duwe untu")saka akhir jaman Cretaceous,yaiku salah sijining genus pterosauria sing paling gedhe lan duwe epek-epek swiwi sing paling maksimal, yaiku ambane luwih saka 6 meter (20 kaki).[1] Pteranodon iku dingerteni saka akehe fosil sing spesimene paling akeh ditemokake lan paling komplit,yakuwi sawetara 1200 spesimen sing dingerteni dening para ilmuwan.[2] Akeh saka spesimen-spesimen mau sing ditemokake ing kahanan sing jangkep. Pteranodon iku sawijining reptil nanging ora kalebu jinis dinosaurus.[2] Definisine, kabeh dinosaurus kebagi ing kelompok Saurichia lan Ornithischia,kajaba Pterosaurus.[3] Nanging, sanajan kaya mangkono, Pteranodon kuwi tansah kapacak ing buku-buku dinosaurus lan wis terkenal ing khalayak umum minangka dinosaurus.[3]

Dheskripsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Spesies Pteranodon kanthi cara apik dijelasake ing cathetan panemuan fosil, kalebu kanggo dheskripsi anatomi awake sing paling ditel lan analisis kauripane.[2] Luwih saka 1000 spesimen sing wis diidhentifikasi,luwih saka setengahe wis cukup akeh ngekei informasi kanggo nggambarake anatomi kewan iki. [2] Malah, panemuan iki disebut-sebut minangka material fosil sing paling dingerteni saka jinis pterosaurus liyane.[2]

Ukuran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ukuran of P. longiceps lanang (ijo) lan babon (oranye) dibandingke karo manungsa

Pteranodon iku reptil mabur (pterosaurus) sing paling gedhe saka kewan mabur liyane.[4] Sawetara 6 kaki (1,8 m) dawane, duwe swiwi sing ambane 25-33 kaki (7,8-10 m),abote sawetara 35 pon, dhuwure nalika ngadheg yiku sawetara 6 kaki (1,8 m).[2] Swiwine kuwi diakoni minangka swiwi sing paling dawa sing dingerteni.[2] Pteranodon duwe balung sing gerong kopong,duwe awak cilik lan ora duwe buntut.[2]

Jantan dhewasa Pteranodon iku dianggep reptil ambur paling amba sing dingerteni nganti pterosaurus azhdarchid gedhe ditemokake ing akhir abad 20-an.[2]Amba epek-epek swiwine Pteranodon lanang dhewasa kuwi 5,6 m.[2] pteranodon wadon Dhewasane luwih cilik ukurane,kira-kira 3,8 m nalika ngepek.[2] Spesimen Pteranodon longiceps sing paling amba sing asale saka Formasi Niobrara diukur 6,25 m saka pucuk swiwi nganti pucuk swiwine maneh.[2] Spesimen sing swiwine paling amba maneh dingerteni saka Bentuk Pierre Shale, kanthi rentangan 7,25 m, sing dianggep duweke salah sijining genus lan spesies Geosternbergia maysei sing wis punah.[5]

Dhaftar Spesies lan sinonime[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ana ing ngisor iki ana dhaftar nama spesies lan sinonime jinis pteranodon sing ditemokake.[5]

Name Author Year Status Notes
Pterodactylus occidentalis Marsh 1872 Reclassified as Pteranodon occidentalis Reclassified from Pterodactylus oweni Marsh 1871 (preoccupied by Seeley 1864)
Pterodactylus ingens Marsh 1872 Reclassified as Pteranodon ingens
Pterodactylus velox Marsh 1872 Nomen dubium Reclassified as Pteranodon velox
Ornithochirus umbrosus Cope 1872 Nomen dubium
Ornithochirus harpyia Cope 1872 Nomen dubium
Pterodactylus umbrosus (Cope) Cope (1872) 1874 Reclassification of Ornithochirus umbrosus
Pteranodon longiceps Marsh 1876 Valid Type species
Pteranodon ingens (Marsh) Williston (1872) 1876 Nomen dubium Reclassified from Pterodactylus ingens
Pteranodon occidentalis Marsh (1872) 1876 Nomen dubium Reclassified from Pterodactylus occidentalis
Pteranodon velox Marsh (1872) 1876 Nomen dubium Reclassified from Pterodactylus velox, based on a juvenile specimen
Pteranodon gracilis Marsh 1876 Reclassified as Nyctosaurus gracilis
Pteranodon comptus Marsh 1876 Nomen dubium
Pteranodon nanus Marsh 1876 Reclassified as Nyctosaurus nanus
Ornithocheirus umbrosus (Cope) Newton (1872) 1888 Reclassified as Pteranodon umbrosus Spelling correction of Ornithochirus umbrosus
Ornithocheirus harpyia (Cope) Newton (1872) 1888 Reclassified as Pteranodon harpyia Spelling correction of Ornithochirus harpyia
Pteranodon umbrosus (Cope) Williston (1872) 1892 Nomen dubium Reclassification of Ornithochirus umbrosus
Ornithostoma ingens (Marsh) Williston (1872) 1893 Synonym of Pteranodon ingens Reclassified from Pteranodon ingens
Ornithostoma umbrosum (Cope) Williston (1872) 1897 Synonym of Pteranodon umbrosus Reclassified from Pteranodon umbrosus
Pteranodon oregonensis Gilmore 1928 Reclassified as Bennettazhia oregonensis
Pteranodon sternbergi Harksen 1966 Valid
Pteranodon marshi Miller 1972 Synonym of Pteranodon longiceps
Pteranodon bonneri Miller 1972 Reclassified as Nyctosaurus bonneri
Pteranodon walkeri Miller 1972 Synonym of Pteranodon longiceps
Pteranodon (Occidentalia) eatoni (Miller) Miller (1972) 1972 Synonym of Pteranodon sternbergi
Pteranodon eatoni (Miller) Miller (1972) 1972 Synonym of Pteranodon sternbergi Reclassified from Pteranodon (Occidentalia) eatoni
Pteranodon (Longicepia) longicps [sic] (Marsh) Miller (1872) 1972 Synonym of Pteranodon longiceps Reclassified from Pteranodon longiceps
Pteranodon (Longicepia) marshi (Miller) Miller (1972) 1972 Synonym of Pteranodon longiceps Reclassified from Pteranodon marshi
Pteranodon (Sternbergia) sternbergi (Harksen) Miller (1966) 1972 Reclassified as Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) sternbergi Reclassified from Pteranodon sternbergi
Pteranodon (Sternbergia) walkeri (Miller) Miller (1972) 1972 Reclassified as Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) walkeri Reclassified from Pteranodon walkeri
Pteranodon (Pteranodon) marshi (Miller) Miller (1972) 1973 Synonym of Pteranodon longiceps Reclassified from Pteranodon marshi
Pteranodon (Occidentalia) occidentalis (Marsh) Olshevsky (1872) 1978 Synonym of Pteranodon occidentalis Reclassified from Pteranodon occidentalis
Pteranodon (Longicepia) ingens (Marsh) Olshevsky (1872) 1978 Synonym of Pteranodon ingens Reclassified from Pteranodon ingens
Pteranodon (Pteranodon) ingens (Marsh) Olshevsky (1872) 1978 Synonym of Pteranodon ingens Reclassified from Pteranodon ingens
Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) walkeri (Miller) Miller (1972) 1978 Synonym of Pteranodon longiceps Reclassified from Pteranodon walkeri
Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) sternbergi (Harksen) Miller (1966) 1978 Synonym of Pteranodon sternbergi Reclassified from Pteranodon (Sternbergia) sternbergi
Pteranodon orientalis (Bogolubov) Nesov & Yarkov (1914) 1989 Reclassified as Bogolubovia orientalis Reclassified from Ornithostoma orientalis
Geosternbergia walkeri (Miller) Olshevsky (1872) 1991 Synonym of Pteranodon sternbergi Reclassified from Pteranodon (Sternbergia) walkeri
Geosternbergia sternbergi (Harksen) Olshevsky (1966) 1991 Synonym of Pteranodon sternbergi Reclassified from Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) sternbergi


Cathetan Suku[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^
    Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências |volum=82 |isu=4 |kaca=1063–1084 |doi=10.1590/S0001-37652010000400025
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l {{en}http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/Pteranodon.shtml}
  3. ^ a b {{en}Benton, S.C. (1994). "The Pterosaurs of the Niobrara Chalk." The Earth Scientist, 11(1): 22-25}
  4. ^ {{en}http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013982}
  5. ^ a b {{en}Bennett, S.C. (1994). "Taxonomy and systematics of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloida)". Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum, University of Kansas 169: 1–70}
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