X-SAMPA

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Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) iku swawijining varian saka SAMPA sing kasusun ing taun 1995 déning John C. Wells, profèsor fonètik ing Universitas London. X-SAMPA dirancang kanggp nyawijèkaké aksara SAMPA, lan ngembangaké SAMPA supaya nyakup kabèh karakter jroning International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Asilé arupa IPA 7-bit ASCII sing kainspirasi déning SAMPA.

Simbul aksara cilik[sunting | sunting sumber]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA gambar Katrangan Conto
a a Xsampa-a.png open front unrounded vowel Basa Prancis dame [dam], Spanish padre ["paD4e]
b b Xsampa-b.png voiced bilabial plosive Basa Inggris bed [bEd], Basa Prancis bon [bO~]
b_< ɓ Xsampa-b lessthan.png voiced bilabial implosive Basa Sindhi ɓarʊ [b_<arU]
c c Xsampa-c.png voiceless palatal plosive Basa Hongaria latyak ["lQcQk]
d d Xsampa-d.png voiced alveolar plosive Basa Inggris dig [dIg], Basa Prancis doigt [dwa]
d` ɖ Xsampa-d'.png voiced retroflex plosive Basa Swedia hord [hu:d`]
d_< ɗ Xsampa-d lessthan.png voiced alveolar implosive Basa Sindhi ɗarʊ [d_<arU]
e e Xsampa-e.png close-mid front unrounded vowel Basa Prancis ses [se], Basa Inggris met [met] (AusE and NZE)
f f Xsampa-f2.png voiceless labiodental fricative Basa Inggris five [faIv], Basa Prancis femme [fam]
g ɡ Xsampa-g.png voiced velar plosive Basa Inggris game [geIm], Basa Prancis longue [lO~g]
g_< ɠ Xsampa-g lessthan.png voiced velar implosive Basa Sindhi ɠəro [g_<@ro]
h h Xsampa-h.png voiceless glottal fricative Basa Inggris house [haUs]
h\ ɦ Xsampa-hslash.png voiced glottal fricative Czech hrad [h\rat]
i i Xsampa-i.png close front unrounded vowel Basa Inggris be [bi:], Basa Prancis oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
j j Xsampa-j2.png palatal approximant Basa Inggris yes [jEs], Basa Prancis yeux [j2]
j\ ʝ Xsampa-jslash2.png voiced palatal fricative Basa Yunani γειά [j\a]
k k Xsampa-k.png voiceless velar plosive Basa Inggris scat [sk{t], Spanish carro ["kar:o]
l l Xsampa-l.png alveolar lateral approximant Basa Inggris lay [leI], Basa Prancis mal [mal]
l` ɭ Xsampa-l'.png retroflex lateral approximant Svealand Basa Swedia sorl [so:l`]
l\ ɺ Xsampa-lslash.png alveolar lateral flap Basa Jepang phoneme /r/
m m Xsampa-m.png bilabial nasal Basa Inggris mouse [maUs], Basa Prancis homme [Om]
n n Xsampa-n.png alveolar nasal Basa Inggris nap [n{p], Basa Prancis non [nO~]
n` ɳ Xsampa-n'.png retroflex nasal Basa Swedia hörn [h2:n`]
o o Xsampa-o.png close-mid back rounded vowel Basa Prancis gros [gRo]
p p Xsampa-p.png voiceless bilabial plosive Basa Inggris speak [spik], Basa Prancis pose [poz], Spanish perro ["per:o]
p\ ɸ Xsampa-pslash.png voiceless bilabial fricative Basa Jepang fuku [p\M_0kM]
q q Xsampa-q.png voiceless uvular plosive Arabic qasbah ["qQs_Gba]
r r Xsampa-r.png alveolar trill Spanish perro ["per:o]
r` ɽ Xsampa-r'.png retroflex flap  
r\ ɹ Xsampa-rslash2.png alveolar approximant Basa Inggris red [r\Ed]
r\` ɻ Xsampa-rslash'.png retroflex approximant Malayalam വഴി ["v6r\`i]
s s Xsampa-s.png voiceless alveolar fricative Basa Inggris seem [si:m], Basa Prancis session [se"sjO~]
s` ʂ Xsampa-s'.png voiceless retroflex fricative Basa Swedia mars [mas`]
s\ ɕ Xsampa-sslash.png voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative Basa Polski świerszcz [s\v'erStS]
t t Xsampa-t.png voiceless alveolar plosive Basa Inggris stew [stju:], Basa Prancis raté [Ra"te], Spanish tuyo ["tujo]
t` ʈ Xsampa-t'.png voiceless retroflex plosive Basa Swedia mört [m2t`]
u u Xsampa-u.png close back rounded vowel Basa Inggris boom [bu:m], Spanish su [su]
v v Xsampa-v.png voiced labiodental fricative Basa Inggris vest [vEst], Basa Prancis voix [vwa]
v\ (or P) ʋ Xsampa-Porvslash.png labiodental approximant Dutch west [v\Est]/[PEst]
w w Xsampa-w2.png labial-velar approximant Basa Inggris west [wEst], Basa Prancis oui [wi]
x x Xsampa-x.png voiceless velar fricative Scots loch [lOx]; German Buch, Dach; Spanish caja, gestión
x\ ɧ Xsampa-xslash2.png voiceless palatal-velar fricative Basa Swedia sjal [x\A:l]
y y Xsampa-y.png close front rounded vowel Basa Prancis tu [ty] German über ["y:b6]
z z Xsampa-z.png voiced alveolar fricative Basa Inggris zoo [zu:], Basa Prancis azote [a"zOt]
z` ʐ Xsampa-z'.png voiced retroflex fricative Mandarin Chinese rang [z`aN]
z\ ʑ Xsampa-zslash.png voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Basa Polski źrebak ["z\rEbak]

Simbul aksara gedhé[sunting | sunting sumber]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA gambar Katrangan Conto
A ɑ Xsampa-A2.png open back unrounded vowel Basa Inggris father ["fA:D@(r\)] (RP and Gen.Am.)
B β Xsampa-B2.png voiced bilabial fricative Spanish lavar [la"Ba4]
B\ ʙ Xsampa-Bslash.png bilabial trill Reminiscent of shivering ("brrr")
C ç Xsampa-C2.png voiceless palatal fricative German ich [IC], Basa Inggris human ["Cjum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
D ð Xsampa-D2.png voiced dental fricative Basa Inggris then [DEn]
E ɛ Xsampa-E2.png open-mid front unrounded vowel Basa Prancis même [mEm], Basa Inggris met [mEt] (RP and Gen.Am.)
F ɱ Xsampa-F.png labiodental nasal Basa Inggris emphasis ["EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
G ɣ Xsampa-G2.png voiced velar fricative Basa Yunani γωνία [Go"nia], Danish vælge ["vElG@]
G\ ɢ Xsampa-Gslash.png voiced uvular plosive Inuktitut nirivvik [niG\ivvik]
G\_< ʛ Xsampa-Gslash lessthan.png voiced uvular implosive Mam ʛa [G\_<a]
H ɥ Xsampa-H.png labial-palatal approximant Basa Prancis huit [Hit]
H\ ʜ Xsampa-Hslash.png voiceless epiglottal fricative  
I ɪ Xsampa-I2.png near-close near-front unrounded vowel Basa Inggris kit [kIt]
I\ or ɪ̈   near-close central unrounded vowel Basa Polski ryba [rI\bA
J ɲ Xsampa-J.png palatal nasal Spanish año ["aJo], Basa Inggris canyon ["k{J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J\ ɟ Xsampa-Jslash.png voiced palatal plosive Basa Hongaria egy [EJ\]
J\_< ʄ Xsampa-Jslash lessthan.png voiced palatal implosive Basa Sindhi ʄaro [J\_<aro]
K ɬ Xsampa-K2.png voiceless alveolar lateral fricative Welsh llaw [KaU]
K\ ɮ Xsampa-Kslash.png voiced alveolar lateral fricative  
L ʎ Xsampa-L2.png palatal lateral approximant Italian famiglia [fa"miLa], Castilian llamar [La"mar], Basa Inggris million ["mIL@n] (broad transcription uses [-lj-])
L\ ʟ Xsampa-Lslash.png velar lateral approximant
M ɯ Xsampa-M.png close back unrounded vowel Korean (eu)
M\ ɰ Xsampa-Mslash.png velar approximant Spanish fuego ["fweM\o]
N ŋ Xsampa-N2.png velar nasal Basa Inggris thing [TIN]
N\ ɴ Xsampa-Nslash.png uvular nasal Basa Jepang san [saN\]
O ɔ Xsampa-O2.png open-mid back rounded vowel RP thought [TO:t], American Basa Inggris off [O:f]
O\ ʘ Xsampa-Oslash.png bilabial click  
P (or v\) ʋ Xsampa-Porvslash.png labiodental approximant Dutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of Basa Inggris phoneme /r\/
Q ɒ Xsampa-Q.png open back rounded vowel RP lot [lQt]
R ʁ Xsampa-R2.png voiced uvular fricative German rein [RaIn]
R\ ʀ Xsampa-Rslash.png uvular trill Basa Prancis roi [R\wa]
S ʃ Xsampa-S2.png voiceless postalveolar fricative Basa Inggris ship [SIp]
T θ Xsampa-T2.png voiceless dental fricative Basa Inggris thin [TIn]
U ʊ Xsampa-U2.png near-close near-back rounded vowel Basa Inggris foot [fUt]
U\ ᵿ or ʊ̈ Xsampa-Uslash.png near-close central rounded vowel Basa Inggris euphoria [jU\"fO@r\i@]
V ʌ Xsampa-V.png open-mid back unrounded vowel RP Basa Inggris strut [str\Vt]
W ʍ Xsampa-X.png voiceless labial-velar fricative Scots when [WEn]
X χ Xsampa-x2.png voiceless uvular fricative Klallam sχaʔqʷaʔ [sXa?q_wa?]
X\ ħ Xsampa-Xslash.png voiceless pharyngeal fricative Arabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:]
Y ʏ Xsampa-Y2.png near-close near-front rounded vowel German hübsch [hYpS]
Z ʒ Xsampa-Z2.png voiced postalveolar fricative Basa Inggris vision ["vIZ@n]

Sibul liya[sunting | sunting sumber]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA gambar Katrangan Conto
. . Xsampa-fullstop.png syllable break  
" ˈ Xsampa-doublequotes.png primary stress  
% ˌ Xsampa-percentage.png secondary stress  
' (or _j) ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png palatalized  
: ː Xsampa-colon.png long  
:\ ˑ Xsampa-colonslash.png half long Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths
-   separator Basa Polski trzy [t-S1] vs. czy [tS1] (affricate)
@ ə Xsampa-at.png schwa Basa Inggris arena [@"r\i:n@]
@\ ɘ Xsampa-atslash.png close-mid central unrounded vowel Paicĩ kɘ̄ɾɘ [k@\_M4@\_M]
{ æ Xsampa-leftcurly.png near-open front unrounded vowel Basa Inggris trap [tr\{p]
} ʉ Xsampa-rightcurly.png close central rounded vowel Basa Swedia sju [x\}:]; AuE/NZE boot [b}:t]
1 ɨ Xsampa-1.png close central unrounded vowel Welsh tu [t1], American Basa Inggris rose's ["r\oUz1z]
2 ø Xsampa-2.png close-mid front rounded vowel Danish købe ["k2:b@], Basa Prancis deux [d2]
3 ɜ Xsampa-3.png open-mid central unrounded vowel Basa Inggris nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3\ ɞ Xsampa-3slash.png open-mid central rounded vowel Irish tomhail[t3\:l']
4 ɾ Xsampa-4.png alveolar flap Spanish pero ["pe4o], American Basa Inggris better ["bE4@`]
5 ɫ Xsampa-l eor5.png velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _e Basa Inggris milk [mI5k]
6 ɐ Xsampa-6.png near-open central vowel German besser ["bEs6], Australian Basa Inggris mud [m6d]
7 ɤ Xsampa-7.png close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian kõik [k7ik], Vietnamese mơ [m7_M]
8 ɵ Xsampa-8.png close-mid central rounded vowel Basa Swedia buss [b8s]
9 œ Xsampa-9.png open-mid front rounded vowel Basa Prancis neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
& ɶ Xsampa-amper.png open front rounded vowel Basa Swedia skörd [x\&d`]
? ʔ Xsampa-questionmark.png glottal stop Danish stød [sd2?], Cockney Basa Inggris bottle ["bQ?l]
?\ ʕ Xsampa-qmarkslash.png voiced pharyngeal fricative Arabic ع‎ (`ayn) [?\Ajn]
*   undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor"  
/   indeterminacy in Basa Prancis vowels  
<   begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)  
<\ ʢ Xsampa-lessthanslash.png voiced epiglottal fricative  
>   end nonsegmental notation  
>\ ʡ Xsampa-greaterthanslash.png epiglottal plosive  
^ Xsampa-hat.png upstep  
! Xsampa-exclamation.png downstep  
!\ ǃ Xsampa-exclamationslash.png postalveolar click  
| | Xsampa-bar.png minor (foot) group  
|\ ǀ Xsampa-barslash.png dental click  
|| Xsampa-doublebar.png major (intonation) group  
|\|\ ǁ Xsampa-doublebarslash.png alveolar lateral click  
=\ ǂ Xsampa-equalsslash.png palatal click  
-\ Xsampa-dashslash.png linking mark  

Diakritik[sunting | sunting sumber]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA gambar Katrangan
_"   ̈ Xsampa- doublequotes.png centralized
_+   ̟ Xsampa- plus.png advanced
_-   ̠ Xsampa- minus.png retracted
_/ ˇ Xsampa- slash.png rising tone
_0   ̥ Xsampa- 0.png voiceless
_<   implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)
= (or _=)   ̩ Xsampa-equalsor equals.png syllabic
_> ʼ Xsampa- greaterthan.png ejective
_?\ ˤ Xsampa- questionslash.png pharyngealized
_\ ˆ   falling tone
_^   ̯ Xsampa- hat.png non-syllabic
_}   ̚ Xsampa- rightcurly.png no audible release
` ˞ Xsampa-'rhino.png rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
~ (or _~)   ̃ Xsampa-tildor tild.png nasalization
_A   ̘ Xsampa- A.png advanced tongue root
_a   ̺ Xsampa- a2.png apical
_B   ̏ Xsampa- B.png extra low tone
_B_L  ᷅ Xsampa- B L.png low rising tone
_c   ̜ Xsampa- c.png less rounded
_d   ̪ Xsampa- d.png dental
_e   ̴ Xsampa- e.png velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5
<F> Xsampa-ltFgt.png global fall
_F   ̂ Xsampa- F.png falling tone
_G ˠ Xsampa- G.png velarized
_H   ́ Xsampa- H.png high tone
_H_T  ᷄ Xsampa- H T.png high rising tone
_h ʰ Xsampa- h.png aspirated
_j (or ') ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png palatalized
_k   ̰ Xsampa- k.png creaky voice
_L   ̀ Xsampa- L.png low tone
_l ˡ Xsampa- l.png lateral release
_M   ̄ Xsampa- M.png mid tone
_m   ̻ Xsampa- m.png laminal
_N   ̼ Xsampa- N.png linguolabial
_n Xsampa- n2.png nasal release
_O   ̹ Xsampa O.png more rounded
_o   ̞ Xsampa- o.png lowered
_q   ̙ Xsampa- q.png retracted tongue root
<R> Xsampa-ltRgt.png global rise
_R   ̌ Xsampa- R.png rising tone
_R_F  ᷈ Xsampa- R F.png rising falling tone
_r   ̝ Xsampa- r.png raised
_T   ̋ Xsampa- T.png extra high tone
_t   ̤ Xsampa- t.png breathy voice
_v   ̬ Xsampa- v.png voiced
_w ʷ Xsampa- w.png labialized
_X   ̆ Xsampa- X.png extra-short
_x   ̽ Xsampa- x.png mid-centralized

Bagan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Konsonan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Consonants (pulmonic)
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical (none)
Manner of articulation Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post‐
alveolar
Retro‐
flex
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-geal Epi‐
glottal
Glottal
Nasal    m    F    n    n`    J    N    N\  
Plosive p b p_d b_d t d t` d` c J\ k g q G\   >\ ?  
Fricative p\ B f v T D s z S Z s` z` C j\ x G X R X\ ?\ H\ <\ h h\
Approximant    B_o    v\    r\    r\`    j    M\      
Trill    B\    r    *    R\    *  
Tap or Flap    *    *    4    r`          *  
Lateral Fricative K K\ *    *    *       
Lateral Approximant    l    l`    L    L\  
Lateral Flap      l\    *    *    *    
  • Daggers (†) mark IPA symbols that have recently been added to Unicode. Since April 2008, this is the case of the labiodental flap, symbolized by a right-hook v in the IPA: Labiodental flap A dedicated symbol for the labiodental flap does not yet exist in X-SAMPA.
Coarticulated
W Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
H Voiced labialized palatal approximant
s\ Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
z\ Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
x\ Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative
Affricates and double articulation
ts voiceless alveolar affricate
dz voiced alveolar affricate
tS voiceless postalveolar affricate
dZ voiced postalveolar affricate
ts\ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
dz\ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
tK voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
kp voiceless labial-velar plosive
gb voiced labial-velar plosive
Nm labial-velar nasal (stop)
Consonants (non-pulmonic)
Clicks Implosives Ejectives
O\ Bilabial b_< Bilabial _> For example:
|\ Laminal alveolar ("dental") d_< Alveolar p_> Bilabial
! Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") J\_< Palatal t_> Alveolar
=\ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") g_< Velar k_> Velar
|\|\ Lateral coronal ("lateral") G\_< Uvular s_> Alveolar fricative

Vokal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
1 • }
M • u
I • Y
I\ • U\
• U
e • 2
@\ • 8
7 • o
E • 9
3 • 3\
V • O
{ •
a • &
A • Q
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open

Deleng uga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Pranala jaba[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cithakan:IPA navigation

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