Wikipedia:IPA Basa Inggris

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Pocapan tembung basa Inggris ing Wikipedia nganut International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) sing migunakaké traskripsi ora mligi siji dhialèk. Kanggo mirsani luwih pepak kunci IPA, pirsani Wikipedia:IPA, sing nyakup swara sing ora ana ing basa Inggris. Yèn simbul IPA ora bisa nuduhaké kanthi cetha ng browser panjenengan,pirsani links ing pérangan ngisor kaca iki.

Kunci[besut sumber]

IPAicon.png

(Words in small capitals are the standard lexical sets. Words in the lexical sets bath and cloth are given two transcriptions, respectively one with /ɑː/ and one with /æ/, and with /ɒ/ and /ɔː/).

Konsonan
IPA Conto
b buy, cab
d die, cad
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff, fan
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j yes, yacht
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
ŋɡ finger, anger
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[2]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[3]
z xi, zoo, has
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[4]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[5]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/
Vowels
IPA Full vowels ... followed by R[6][7]
ɑː palm, baht, father, bra ɑr start, bard, barn, snarl, star (also /ɑːr./)
ɒ lot, pod, song, doll[8] ɒr moral, forage
æ trap, pad, shall, ban ær barrow, marry
price, ride, file, fine, pie[9] aɪər fire (/aɪr./)[7]
mouth, loud, foul, down, how aʊər hour (/aʊr./)[7]
ɛ dress, bed, fell, men[10] ɛr error, merry[11]
face, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər square, scared, scarce, cairn, Mary (/eɪr./)[12][7]
ɪ kit, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
fleece, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər near, beard, fierce, serious (/iːr./)
ɔː thought, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[13] ɔr north, born, for, aural (/ɔːr./)
ɔɪ choice, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir, coir (/ɔɪr./)[7]
goat, code, foal, bone, go[14] ɔər force, boar, more, oral (/oʊr./)[15]
ʊ foot, good, full, woman ʊr courier
goose, food, fool, soon, chew ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[16]
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue[17] jʊər cure
ʌ strut, mud, dull, gun[18] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr nurse, word, girl, fern, furry (/ɝː/)[19]
Reduced vowels
ə Rosa’s, a mission, comma ər letter, perform (also /ɚ/)[19]
ɨ roses, emission[20] (either ɪ or ə) ən button
ɵ omission[21] (either or ə) əm rhythm
ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[22] (either ʊ or ə) əl bottle
i happy, serious[23] (either ɪ or ) ᵊ, ⁱ (vowel is frequently dropped: nasturtium)
 
Stress Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[24]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[25]
. shellfish /ˈʃɛl.fɪʃ/, selfish /ˈsɛlf.ɨʃ/
nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
hire /ˈhaɪər/, higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/, Windhoek /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/[26]
ˌ

Cathetan[besut sumber]

  1. ^ If the two characters ‹ɡ› and ‹Opentail g.svg› do not match and if the first looks like a ‹γ›, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. ^ Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  3. ^ /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in dialects with the wine-whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm.
  4. ^ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  5. ^ In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in loch and by /h/ in Chanukah.
  6. ^ In non-rhotic accents such as RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are distinguished, the long vowels may be transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/. If you notify us of this on the talk page, we will correct it.
  7. ^ a b c d e Note that many speakers distinguish monosyllabic triphthongs with R and disyllabic realizations: hour /ˈaʊər/ from plougher /ˈplaʊ.ər/, hire /ˈhaɪər/ from higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, loir /ˈlɔɪər/ from employer /ɨmˈplɔɪ.ər/, mare /ˈmɛər/ from mayor /ˈmeɪ.ər/.
  8. ^ /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father-bother merger such as GenAm.
  9. ^ Many speakers, for example in most of Canada, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [əɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷəɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspəɪɾəɹ],[butuh rujukan] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
  10. ^ Instead of ɛ, many dictionaries use /e/ as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[1][2][3]
  11. ^ Instead of ɛ, many dictionaries use /e/ as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[4][5][6]
  12. ^ The GenAm pronunciation is ɛr. Instead of using ɛ in RP ɛər and GenAm ɛr, many dictionaries use /e/ (eər in RP and er in GenAm) as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[7][8][9]
  13. ^ /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot-caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  14. ^ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  15. ^ /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse-hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  16. ^ /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour-poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  17. ^ In dialects with yod-dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod-coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  18. ^ This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England and some bordering parts of Wales. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot-strut split.
  19. ^ a b In some articles /ɜr/ is transcribed as /ɝː/, and /ər/ as /ɚ/, when not followed by a vowel.
  20. ^ Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ [10], and Merriam–Webster uses ə̇.
  21. ^ Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /əʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  22. ^ Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ʊ [11].
  23. ^ Pronounced /iː/ in dialects with the happy tensing, /ɪ/ in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with /ɪ/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  24. ^ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  25. ^ Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  26. ^ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).