Pratélan Usada Pokok Modhèl WHO

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Pratélan Usada Pokok Modhèl WHO (EML), dibabar déning World Health Organization (WHO), isiné usada-usada sing dianggep paling mempan tur aman tumrap kabutuhan paling ndhasari ing sistem kaséhatan. Pratélan iki asring dicakaké ing manéka nagara minangka dhasaran nalika nggawé pratélan usada pokok sing enggon-enggonan ing nagarané dhéwé-dhéwé.[1] Dhèk taun 2016, 155 nagara punjul wis nggawé pratélan usada pokok nasional sing dhedhasar pratélan modhèl World Health Organization iki.[2] Nagara-nagara sing ngecakaké kalebu nagara-nagara maju saha nagara-nagara tumuwuh.[1]

Pratélan iki dipérang dadi barang-barang inti lan barang-barang lelengkap. Éwoning barang-barang inti iku ingaran sing paling mujarab kanggo ngatasi masalah kaséhatan lan bisa dicakaké kanthi tambahan sumber daya layanan kaséhatan sing minimal. Éwadéné, éwoning barang-barang lelengkap mbutuhaké infrastruktur tambahan kaya ta juru awèh layanan kaséhatan sing digladhi mirunggan utawa piranti dhiagnostik utawa duwé rasio béya-bathi sing cilik.[3] Pratélan lelengkap nglimputi watara 25% barang ing pratélan iki.[4] Sawenèh usada kagolong becik ing pratélan inti uga ing pratélan lelengkap.[5] Sanadyan kèh-kèhé usada ing pratélan iku weton gènerik, ana ing pangayomané patèn ora ateges ngejabakaké inklusi.[6]

Pratélané pisanan dibabar taun 1977 lan macak usada cacah 212.[1][7] WHO banjur nganyari pratélané mbaka rong taun.[8] Pratélan sing kaping 14 dibabar taun 2005 lan macak usada cacah 306.[9] Ing taun 2015, èdhisi kaping 19 dibabar lan macak watara 410 usada.[8] Èdhisi kaping 20 dirancang babaré ing taun 2017. Pratélan-pratélan nasional macak watara 334 lan 580 usada.[4]

Pratélan sing ndhèwèki diyasa kanggo bocah umur tekan 12 taun, ingaran Pratélan Usada Pokok kanggo Bocah Modhèl WHO (EMLc). Pratélan iki diripta taun 2007 lan saiki wis nyadhak èdhisi kaping 5.[8][10] Pratélan iki digawé kanggo minangkani butuhé bocah kanthi cumepaké formulasi sing trep.[11][12] Samubarang sing ana ing pratélan kanggo bocah iku uga kapacak ing pratélan pokok.[13] Pratélan kanggo bocah dalah cathetané iku dhedhasar èdhisi kaping 19 pratélan pokok. Simbul α mratandhani yèn sawijining usada mung kapacak ing pratélan lelengkap.[3]

Isi

Anèstètik[besut | besut sumber]

Anèstètik umum lan oksigèn[besut | besut sumber]

Usada inhalasi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Halotan
  • Isofluran
  • Oksidha nitro
  • Oksigèn

Usada suntik[besut | besut sumber]

Anèstètik enggon-enggonan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Bupivakain
  • Lidhokain
  • Lidhokain/épinéfrin
  • Éfédrinα (dudu anèstètik enggon-enggonan, kalebu ing pratélan iki awit kanggo panyegah wewesan getih sing asor sing gegayutan karo anèstèsi spinal nalika operasi sésar)

Usada praoperasi lan sédasi tumrap prosedhur kala-cendhak[besut | besut sumber]

  • Atropin
  • Midhazolam
  • Morfin

Usada kanggo lara lan pangrumat paliatif[besut | besut sumber]

Nonopioid lan usada anti-inflamasi nonstéroid (NSAIDs)[besut | besut sumber]

A line drawing of a hexagon with two attachments
Modhèl rangka struktur kimiyané aspirin
  • Asem asètilsalisilat (aspirin)
  • Ibuprofèn
  • Parasétamol[cathetan 2] (asétaminofèn)

Analgèsik opioid[besut | besut sumber]

Usada tumrap tandha-tandha umum liyané babagan pangrumat paliatif[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amitriptilin
  • Siklizin
  • Dhéksamétason
  • Dhiazépam
  • Sodhiyum dhokusat
  • Fluoksètin
  • Halopéridhol
  • Butilbromid hioskin
  • Hidrobromid hioskin
  • Laktulos
  • Lopéramid
  • Métoklopramid
  • Midhazolam
  • Ondhansétron
  • Sénna

Antialèrgi lan usada tumrap anafilaksis[besut | besut sumber]

  • Dhéksamétason
  • Épinéfrin (adrénalin)
  • Hidrokortison
  • Loratadhin[cathetan 4]
  • Prédnisolon

Antidhot (panawa) lan dat liyané tumrap karacunan[besut | besut sumber]

Ora mirunggan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Karbon aktif

Mirunggan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Asétilsistéin
  • Atropin
  • Glukonat kalsiyum
  • Klorid mètiltioninium (biru mètilèn)
  • Nalokson
  • Pénisilamin
  • Biru prusia
  • Nitrit sodhiyum
  • Tiosulfat sodhium
  • Dhéféroksaminα
  • Dhimérsaprolα
  • Fomépizolα
  • Édhétat kalsiyum sodhiyumα
  • Saksimerα

Usada antikonvulsi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Karbamazépin
  • Dhiazépam
  • Lorazépam
  • Sulfat magnésiyum[cathetan 5]
  • Fénobarbital
  • Fénitoin
  • Asem valporat (valporat sodhiyum)
  • Éthosuksimidα

Usada antiinfèksi[besut | besut sumber]

Antihèlmintik (obat cacing)[besut | besut sumber]

Antihèlmintik usus[besut | besut sumber]

A hexagon joined to a polygon with two attachments to this double ringed structure
Modhèl rangka struktur kimiyané albèndhazol
  • Albèndhazol
  • Lévamisol
  • Mébéndhazol
  • Niklosamid
  • Prazikuwantèl
  • Prantèl

Antifilarial[besut | besut sumber]

  • Albéndhazol
  • Dhiètilkarbamazin
  • Ivèrmèktin

Antiskistosomal lan usada antinématod liyané[besut | besut sumber]

  • Prazikuwantèl
  • Triklabéndhazol
  • Oksamnikuwinα

Antibiotik[besut | besut sumber]

Usada béta laktam[besut | besut sumber]

Antibaktèri liyané[besut | besut sumber]

  • Azitromisin[cathetan 12]
  • Kloramfénisol
  • Siprofloksasin
  • Klaritromisin[cathetan 13]
  • Dhoksisiklin
  • Èritromisin
  • Géntamisin
  • Métronidhazol
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Spèktinomisin
  • Trimétoprim/sulfamétoksazol
  • Trimétoprim
  • Slindhamisinα
  • Vankomisinα

Usada antilèprosi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Klofazimin
  • Dhapson
  • Rifampisin

Usada antituberkulosis[besut | besut sumber]

A small pile of white crystals
Pure crystals of ethambutol
  • Étambutol
  • Étambutol/isoniazid (étambutol + isoniazid)
  • Étambutol/isoniazid/pirazinamid/rifampisin (étambutol + isoniazid + pirazinamid + rifampisin)
  • Étambutol/isoniazid/rifampisin (étambutol + isoniazid + rifampisin)
  • Isoniazid
  • Isoniazid/pirazinamid/rifampisin (isoniazid + pirazinamid + rifampisin)
  • Isoniazid/rifampicin (isoniazid + rifampisin)
  • Pirazinamid
  • Rifabutin[cathetan 14]
  • Rifampisin
  • Rifapèntin[cathetan 15]
  • Amikasinα
  • Bédhakuwilinα
  • Kapréomisinα
  • Siklosérinα[cathetan 16]
  • Dhélamanidα
  • Ètionamidα[cathetan 17]
  • Kanamisinα
  • Lévofloksasinα[cathetan 18]
  • Linézolidα
  • Asem p-aminosalisilikα
  • Strèptomisinα

Usada antijamur[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amfotérisin B
  • Klotrimazol
  • Flukonazol
  • Flusitosin
  • Griséofulvin
  • Nistatin
  • Iodid potasiyumα

Usada antivirus[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antihèrpes[besut | besut sumber]

  • Asiklovir

Antirétrovirus[besut | besut sumber]

Inhibitor transkriptase balik nukléyosid/nukléyotid[besut | besut sumber]
  • Abakavir (ABC)
  • Lamivudhin (3TC)
  • Stavudhin (d4T)
  • Fumarat dhisoproksil ténofovir (TDF)
  • Zidhovudhin (ZDV or AZT)
Inhibitor transkriptase balik non-nukléyosid[besut | besut sumber]
  • Efavirenz (EGV or EFZ)
  • Nevirapine (NVP)
Inhibitor protase[besut | besut sumber]
Two dark blue capsules with writing on them
Two capsules of atazanavir
  • Atazanavir
  • Darunavir
  • Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)
  • Ritonavir
  • Saquinavir (SQV)
Gabungan dhosis ajeg[besut | besut sumber]
  • Abacavir/lamivudine (abacavir + lamivudine)
  • Efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir[cathetan 19]
  • Emtricitabine/tenofovir
  • Lamivudine/nevirapine/stavudine
  • Lamivudine/nevirapine/zidovudine
  • Lamivudine/zidovudine
Antivirus liyané[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antihépatitis[besut | besut sumber]

Usada tumrap hépatitis B[besut | besut sumber]

Inhibitor transkriptase walik nukléosid/nukléotid

  • Èntekavir
  • Fumarat dhisoproksil ténofovir (TDF)
Usada tumrap hépatitis C[besut | besut sumber]

Inhibitor polimérase nukléotid

  • Sofosbuvir

Inhibitor protéase

  • Simeprévir

Inhibitor NS5A

  • Dhaklatasvir

Inhibitor polimérase non-nukléosid

  • Dhasabuvir

Antivirus liyané

Gabungan dhosis ajeg

  • Lédhipasvir/sofosbuvir
  • Ombitasvir/paritaprévir/ritonavir

Usada antiprotozoa[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antiamoéba lan antigiardhiasis[besut | besut sumber]

  • Dhiloksanid
  • Métronidhazol

Usada antiléismaniasis[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amfotérisin B
  • Miltéfosin
  • Paromomisin
  • Stiboglukonat sodhium utawa antimoniat méglumin

Usada antimalaria[besut | besut sumber]

Minangka tamba kuratif[besut | besut sumber]
Kanggo panyegah[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antipnéumosistosis lan antitoksoplasmosis[besut | besut sumber]

  • Pyrimethamine
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim
  • Pentamidineα

Usada antitripanosom[besut | besut sumber]

Tripanosomiasis afrika[besut | besut sumber]
Tataran angka 1[besut | besut sumber]
Tataran angka 2[besut | besut sumber]
Tripanosomiasis amérika[besut | besut sumber]
  • Benznidazole
  • Nifurtimox

Usaga antimigrèn[besut | besut sumber]

Serangan akut[besut | besut sumber]

  • Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)
  • Ibuprofen
  • Paracetamol

Panyegah[besut | besut sumber]

  • Propranolol

Antinéoplastik lan imunosuprèsif[besut | besut sumber]

Usada imunosuprèsif[besut | besut sumber]

  • Azathioprineα
  • Ciclosporinα

Usada adjuvan lan sitotoksik[besut | besut sumber]

  • All-trans retinoic acid (trétinoin)α
  • Allopurinolα
  • Asparaginaseα
  • Bendamustineα
  • Bleomycinα
  • Calcium folinateα
  • Capecitabineα
  • Carboplatinα
  • Chlorambucilα
  • Cisplatinα
  • Cyclophosphamideα
  • Cytarabineα
  • Dacarbazineα
  • Dactinomycinα
  • Daunorubicinα
  • Docetaxelα
  • Doxorubicinα
  • Etoposideα
  • Fludarabineα
  • Fluorouracilα
  • Filgrastimα
  • Gemcitabineα
  • Hydroxycarbamideα
  • Ifosfamideα
  • Imatinibα
  • Irinotecanα
  • Mercaptopurineα
  • Mesnaα
  • Methotrexateα
  • Oxaliplatinα
  • Paclitaxelα
  • Procarbazineα
  • Rituximabα
  • Thioguanineα
  • Trastuzumabα
  • Vinblastineα
  • Vincristineα
  • Vinorelbineα

Hormon lan antihormon[besut | besut sumber]

  • Anastrozoleα
  • Bicalutamideα
  • Dexamethasoneα
  • Hydrocortisoneα
  • Leuprorelinα
  • Methylprednisoloneα
  • Prednisoloneα
  • Tamoxifenα

Usada antiparkinson[besut | besut sumber]

  • Biperiden
  • Carbidopa/levodopa (levodopa + carbidopa)

Usada sing mrabawani getih[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antianémia[besut | besut sumber]

  • Ferrous salt
  • Ferrous salt/folic acid
  • Folic acid
  • Hydroxocobalamin

Usada sing njalari koagulasi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Enoxaparin
  • Heparin sodium
  • Phytomenadione
  • Protamine sulfate
  • Tranexamic acid
  • Warfarin
  • Desmopressinα

Usada liyané tumrap hémoglobinopati[besut | besut sumber]

Wetoné getih lan gegantèn plasma sing asalé saka manungsa[besut | besut sumber]

Getih lan komponèn getih[besut | besut sumber]

A straw colored liquid inside a clear plastic bag
Bag containing one unit of fresh frozen plasma
  • Fresh frozen plasma
  • Platelet concentrates
  • Packed red blood cells
  • Whole blood

Usada tumurun saka plasma[besut | besut sumber]

Imunoglobulin manungsa[besut | besut sumber]

  • Rho(D) immune globulin
  • Anti-rabies immunoglobulin
  • Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin
  • Human normal immunoglobulinα

Faktor koagulasi getih[besut | besut sumber]

  • Coagulation factor VIIIα
  • Coagulation factor IXα

Gantiné plasma[besut | besut sumber]

Usada kardhiovaskular[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antiangina[besut | besut sumber]

  • Bisoprolol[cathetan 42]
  • Glyceryl trinitrate
  • Isosorbide dinitrate
  • Verapamil

Usada antiaritmik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Bisoprolol
  • Digoxin
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Lidocaine
  • Verapamil
  • Amiodaroneα

Usada antihipertènsi[besut | besut sumber]

Usada tumrap gagal jantung[besut | besut sumber]

  • Bisoprolol
  • Digoxin
  • Enalapril
  • Furosemide
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Spironolactone
  • Dopamineα

Usada antitrombotik[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antiplatelèt[besut | besut sumber]

  • Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
  • Clopidogrel

Usada trombolitik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Streptokinaseα

Agèn pangasor lipid[besut | besut sumber]

Dhèrmatologis (topikal)[besut | besut sumber]

Usada antijamur[besut | besut sumber]

  • Miconazole
  • Selenium sulfide
  • Sodium thiosulfate
  • Terbinafine

Usada antiinfèksi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Mupirocin
  • Potassium permanganate
  • Silver sulfadiazine

Usada antiinflamasi lan antipruritik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Betamethasone
  • Calamine
  • Hydrocortisone

Usada sing mrabawani diferensiasi lan proliferasi kulit[besut | besut sumber]

  • Benzoyl peroxide
  • Coal tar
  • Fluorouracil
  • Podophyllum resin
  • Salicylic acid
  • Urea

Skabisid lan pédikulisid[besut | besut sumber]

  • Benzyl benzoate
  • Permethrin

Agèn dhiagnostik[besut | besut sumber]

Usada optalmik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Fluorescein
  • Tropicamide

Médhia radhiokontras[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amidotrizoate
  • Barium sulfate
  • Iohexol
  • Meglumine iotroxateα

Dhisinfèktan lan antisèptik[besut | besut sumber]

Antisèptik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Chlorhexidine
  • Ethanol
  • Povidone iodine

Dhisinfèktan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Alcohol based hand rub
  • Chlorine base compound
  • Chloroxylenol
  • Glutaral

Dhiurètik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amiloride
  • Furosemide
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Mannitol
  • Spironolactone

Usada gastrointèstinal[besut | besut sumber]

  • Pancreatic enzymesα

Usada antiulkus[besut | besut sumber]

  • Omeprazole
  • Ranitidine

Usada antimutah[besut | besut sumber]

  • Dexamethasone
  • Metoclopramide
  • Ondansetron

Usada antiinflamasi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Sulfasalazine
  • Hydrocortisoneα

Laksatif[besut | besut sumber]

  • Senna

Usada tumrap dhiaré[besut | besut sumber]

Réhidrasi oral[besut | besut sumber]

  • Oral rehydration salts

Usada tumrap dhiaré ing bocah[besut | besut sumber]

Hormon, usada éndhokrin liyané, lan kontrasèpsi[besut | besut sumber]

Hormon adrénal lan gegantèn sintètik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Fludrocortisone
  • Hydrocortisone

Androgèn[besut | besut sumber]

  • Testosteroneα

Kontrasèpsi[besut | besut sumber]

Kontrasèpsi hormonal oral[besut | besut sumber]

  • Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel
  • Ethinylestradiol/norethisterone
  • Levonorgestrel

Kontrasèpsi hormonal suntik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Estradiol cypionate/medroxyprogesterone acetate
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate
  • Norethisterone enantate

Piranti intrauterus[besut | besut sumber]

  • IUD with copper
  • IUD with progestogen

Metodhe palang[besut | besut sumber]

  • Condoms
  • Diaphragms

Kontrasèpsi implan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Etonogestrel—releasing implant
  • Levonorgestrel—releasing implant

Kontrasèpsi intravagina[besut | besut sumber]

  • Progesterone vaginal ring

Insulin lan usada liyané tumrap dhiabètes[besut | besut sumber]

  • Gliclazide[cathetan 47]
  • Glucagon
  • Insulin injection (soluble)
  • Intermediate-acting insulin
  • Metformin

Indhuser ovulasi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Clomifeneα

Progèstogèn[besut | besut sumber]

  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Hormon tiroid lan usada antitiroid[besut | besut sumber]

  • Levothyroxine
  • Potassium iodide
  • Propylthiouracil
  • Lugol's solutionα

Usada imunologi[besut | besut sumber]

Agèn dhiagnostik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Tuberculin, purified protéin derivative (PPD)

Séra lan usada imunoglobulin[besut | besut sumber]

Vaksin[besut | besut sumber]

A small vial with writing on it being removed from a cardboard package
A vial of oral cholera vaccine
  • BCG vaccine
  • Cholera vaccine[cathetan 49]
  • Diphtheria vaccine
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
  • Hepatitis A vaccine
  • Hepatitis B vaccine
  • HPV vaccine
  • Influenza vaccine
  • Japanese encephalitis vaccine[cathetan 50]
  • Measles vaccine
  • Meningococcal meningitis vaccine
  • Mumps vaccine
  • Pertussis vaccine
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Poliomyelitis vaccine
  • Rabies vaccine
  • Rotavirus vaccine
  • Rubella vaccine
  • Tetanus vaccine
  • Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine
  • Typhoid vaccine
  • Varicella vaccine
  • Yellow fever vaccine

Panglemes otot (tumindak pèrifèr) lan kolinèstérase[besut | besut sumber]

  • Atracurium
  • Neostigmine
  • Suxamethonium
  • Vecuronium
  • Pyridostigmineα

Pangupakara nétra[besut | besut sumber]

Agèn antiinfèksi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Aciclovir
  • Azithromycin
  • Gentamicin
  • Ofloxacin
  • Tetracycline

Agèn antiinflamasi[besut | besut sumber]

  • Prednisolone

Anèstètik enggon-enggonan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Tetracaine

Usada miotik lan antiglaukoma[besut | besut sumber]

  • Acetazolamide
  • Latanoprost
  • Pilocarpine
  • Timolol

Usada midriatik[besut | besut sumber]

Faktor tuwuhé éndhotélial antivaskular (VEGF)[besut | besut sumber]

  • Bevacizumabα

Usada oksitosik lan antioksitosik[besut | besut sumber]

Usada oksitosik lan abortifasièn[besut | besut sumber]

  • Ergometrine
  • Misoprostol
  • Oxytocin
  • Mifepristone used with misoprostolα[cathetan 52]

Usada antioksitosik (tokolitik)[besut | besut sumber]

  • Nifedipine

Solusi dhialisis péritonéal[besut | besut sumber]

  • Intraperitoneal dialysis solution (of appropriate composition)α

Usada tumrap gangguan pikir lan patrap[besut | besut sumber]

Usada tumrap gangguan psikotik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Chlorpromazine
  • Fluphenazine
  • Haloperidol
  • Risperidone
  • Clozapineα

Usada tumrap gangguan swasana ati[besut | besut sumber]

Usada tumrap gangguan dhéprèsif[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amitriptyline
  • Fluoxetine

Usada tumrap gangguan bipolar[besut | besut sumber]

  • Carbamazepine
  • Lithium
  • Valproic acid (sodium valproate)

Usada tumrap gangguan pangrudatin[besut | besut sumber]

  • Diazepam

Usada tumrap gangguan obsèsif kompulsif[besut | besut sumber]

  • Clomipramine

Usada tumrap gangguan amarga panganggoné dat psikoaktif[besut | besut sumber]

  • Nicotine replacement therapy
  • Methadoneα

Usada sing tumindak ing saluran ambegan[besut | besut sumber]

Antiasma lan usada tumrap lelara paru-paru obstuktif kronik[besut | besut sumber]

  • Beclometasone
  • Budesonide
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Ipratropium bromide
  • Salbutamol (albuterol)

Larudan kanggo ndandani gangguan banyu, èlèktrolit, lan asem-basa[besut | besut sumber]

Oral[besut | besut sumber]

  • Oral rehydration salts
  • Potassium chloride

Parèntéral[besut | besut sumber]

  • Glucose
  • Glucose with sodium chloride
  • Potassium chloride
  • Sodium chloride
  • Sodium hydrogen carbonate
  • Sodium lactate, compound solution

Liya-liyané[besut | besut sumber]

  • Water for injection

Vitamin lan mineral[besut | besut sumber]

  • Ascorbic acid
  • Calcium
  • Cholecalciferol[cathetan 53]
  • Ergocalciferol
  • Iodine
  • Nicotinamide
  • Pyridoxine
  • Retinol
  • Riboflavin
  • Sodium fluoride
  • Thiamine
  • Calcium gluconateα

Usada kuping, irung, lan telak tumrap bocah[besut | besut sumber]

  • Acetic acid
  • Budesonide
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Xylometazoline

Usada mirunggan tumrap pangrumat néonatal[besut | besut sumber]

Usada kawènèhaké marang néonatus[besut | besut sumber]

  • Caffeine citrate
  • Chlorhexidine
  • Ibuprofenα
  • Prostaglandin Eα
    • Prostaglandin E1
    • Prostaglandin E2
  • Surfactantα

Usada kawènèhaé marang ibu[besut | besut sumber]

  • Dexamethasone

Usada tumrap lelara gegelan[besut | besut sumber]

Usada tumrap éncok[besut | besut sumber]

  • Allopurinol

Agèn modhifikasi lelara ing gangguan réumatoid[besut | besut sumber]

  • Chloroquine
  • Azathioprineα
  • Hydroxychloroquineα
  • Methotrexateα
  • Penicillamineα
  • Sulfasalazineα

Lelara gegelan ing bocah enom[besut | besut sumber]

Cathetan[besut | besut sumber]

^ An α indicates the medicine is only on the complementary list. For these items specialized diagnostic or monitoring or specialist training are needed. An item may also be listed as complementary on the basis of higher costs or a less attractive cost-benefit ratio.[3]
  1. Thiopental may be used as an alternative depending on local availability and cost.
  2. Not recommended for anti‐inflammatory use due to lack of proven benefit to that effect
  3. Alternatives limited to hydromorphone and oxycodone
  4. There may be a role for sedating antihistamines for limited indications (EMLc).
  5. For use in eclampsia and severe pre‐eclampsia and not for other convulsant disorders
  6. For surgical prophylaxis
  7. Only listed for single‐dose treatment of uncomplicated ano‐genital gonorrhoea
  8. Do not administer with calcium and avoid in infants with hyperbilirubinemia.
  9. Procaine benzylpenicillin is not recommended as first-line treatment for neonatal sepsis except in settings with high neonatal mortality, when given by trained health workers in cases where hospital care is not achievable.
  10. Third generation cephalosporin of choice for use in hospitalized neonates
  11. Only listed for the treatment of life‐threatening hospital‐based infection due to suspected or proven multidrug‐resistant infection
  12. Only listed for single‐dose treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis and of trachoma
  13. For use in combination regimens for eradication of H. pylori in adults
  14. For use only in patients with HIV receiving protease inhibitors
  15. For treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) only
  16. Terizidone may be an alternative.
  17. Prothionamide may be an alternative.
  18. Ofloxacin and moxifloxacin may be alternatives based on availability and programme considerations.
  19. FTC is an acceptable alternative to 3TC, based on knowledge of the pharmacology, the resistance patterns and clinical trials of antiretrovirals.
  20. Potentially severe or complicated illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in accordance with WHO treatment guidelines
  21. For the treatment of viral haemorrhagic fevers and in combination with pegylated interferons for the treatment of Hepatitis C
  22. For the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with peginterferon or direct acting anti-viral medicines
  23. To be used in combination with ribavirin
  24. To be used in combination with artesunate 50 mg
  25. For use in the management of severe malaria
  26. Not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy or in children below 5 kg
  27. To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine
  28. Other combinations that deliver the target doses required such as 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride) with 50 mg artesunate can be alternatives.
  29. For use only for the treatment of P.vivax infection
  30. For use only in combination with quinine
  31. Only for use to achieve radical cure of P.vivax and P.ovale infections, given for 14 days
  32. For use only in the management of severe malaria, and should be used in combination with doxycycline
  33. Only in combination with artesunate 50 mg
  34. For use only in central American regions, for use for P.vivax
  35. For use only in combination with chloroquine
  36. To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection
  37. To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection
  38. To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection
  39. Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the treatment of T. b. gambiense infection
  40. Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and availability.
  41. Polygeline, injectable solution, 3.5% is considered as equivalent.
  42. Includes metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives
  43. Hydralazine is listed for use in the acute management of severe pregnancy‐induced hypertension only.
  44. Methyldopa is listed for use in the management of pregnancy‐induced hypertension only.
  45. For use in high‐risk patients
  46. In acute diarrhoea, zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts
  47. Glibenclamide not suitable above 60 years
  48. Exact type to be defined locally
  49. Recommended for some high-risk populations
  50. Recommended for certain regions
  51. Or homatropine (hydrobromide) or cyclopentolate (hydrochloride)
  52. Requires close medical supervision
  53. Ergocalciferol can be used as an alternative.
  54. For use for rheumatic fever, juvenile arthritis, Kawasaki disease

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. a b c "Essential medicines". World Health Organization. Dijupuk 19 January 2017. 
  2. "The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML): 30th anniversary". World Health Organization. Dijupuk 26 June 2016. 
  3. a b c "19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" (pdf). who.int. World Health Organization. April 2015. k. Annex 1. Dijupuk 17 January 2017. 
  4. a b Bansal, D; Purohit, VK (January 2013). "Accessibility and use of essential medicines in health care: Current progress and challenges in India.". Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics 4 (1): 13–8. PMC 3643337. PMID 23662019. doi:10.4103/0976-500X.107642. 
  5. "The Selection and Use of Essential Medicines - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 920: 5. Reviews of sections of the Model List: 5.2 Review of core versus complementary listing of medicines". apps.who.int. 2003. Dijupuk 6 March 2017. 
  6. Beall, Reed (2016). "Patents and the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (18th Edition): Clarifying the Debate on IP and Access" (PDF). WIPO. Dijupuk 3 May 2017. 
  7. Wirtz, VJ; Hogerzeil, HV; Gray, AL; Bigdeli, M; de Joncheere, CP; et al. (28 January 2017). "Essential medicines for universal health coverage". The Lancet 389 (10067): 403–476. PMID 27832874. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31599-9. 
  8. a b c "WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines". World Health Organization. Dijupuk 17 January 2017. 
  9. Prakash, B; Nadig, P; Nayak, A (2016). "Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist.". Indian Journal of Dermatology 61 (1): 32–8. PMC 4763692. PMID 26955092. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.174017. 
  10. "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children 5th List" (PDF). who.int. World Health Organization. August 2015. Dijupuk 17 January 2017. 
  11. Rose, K; Anker, JNVd (2010). Guide to Paediatric Drug Development and Clinical Research (ing basa Inggris). Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. k. 42. ISBN 9783805593625. 
  12. Seyberth, HW; Rane, A; Schwab, M (2011). Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology (ing basa Inggris). Springer Science & Business Media. k. 358. ISBN 9783642201950. 
  13. Kalle, H (9 February 2017). "Essential Medicines for Children". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. PMID 28182281. doi:10.1002/cpt.661. 

Wacan liyané[besut | besut sumber]