Alkimia lan kimia ing jaman Islam tengahan

Saka Wikipédia Jawa, bauwarna mardika basa Jawa
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian
Ibnu Umail nyandra reca mahardika nggawa tablet kawruh alkimia purwa. Gambaran saka buku transkrip Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi's Al-mâ' al-waraqî (Banyu Kapérakan utawa The Silvery Water), Baghdad, 1339.

Alkimia lan Kimia ing Islam ateges pasinaon alkimia tradhisional lan kimia praktis ing mangsa kawitan (kimia kawitan nitipriksa alam kanthi umum) saka sujana ing donya Islam tengahan. Tembung alkimia asal saka tembung Arab كيمياء or kīmiyāʾ.[1][2] sing wode saka tembung Mesir kuna kemi, tegesé ireng.[2]

Sawisé bubrahé Praja Romawi Kulon, pangembanging alkimia ngalih ing kakalifahan lan kabudayan Islam. Utawa sing luwih misuwur alkimia Islam jalaran luwih apik katulis ; akèh-akèhé tulisan wiwitan iku katulis nganggo pertalan Arab.[3]

Prosès lan piranti[besut | besut sumber]

Al-Rāzī nyebutaké prosès-prosès kimia mangkéné:

  • distilasi
  • kalsinasi,
  • larutan
  • evaporasi
  • kristalisasi
  • sublimasi,
  • filtrasi,
  • amalgamasi,
  • and serasi (prosès kanggo nggawé pasta padet utawa fusibel.)[4]

Sawènèh operasi iki (calcination, solution, filtration, crystallization, sublimation and distillation) sing uga dikenal wis praktekaké déning juru alkimia Aleksandria pra-Islam.[5]

References[besut | besut sumber]

  1. "alchemy", entry in The Oxford English Dictionary, J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner, vol. 1, 2nd ed., 1989, ISBN 0-19-861213-3.
  2. a b p. 854, "Arabic alchemy", Georges C. Anawati, pp. 853-885 in Encyclopedia of the history of Arabic science, eds.
  3. Burckhardt, Titus (1967). "Alchemy: science of the cosmos, science of the soul". Stuart & Watkins: 46. 
  4. p. 89, Holmyard 1990.
  5. p. 23, A short history of chemistry, James Riddick Partington, 3rd ed., Courier Dover Publications, 1989, ISBN 0-486-65977-1.

Wacan Lanjutan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Islamic Science". The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, Prehistory to A.D. 1450. Chicago: U of Chicago. kk. 163–92. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  • Principe, Lawrence M. (2011). "Alchemy Restored". Isis 102 (2): 305–12. doi:10.1086/660139. 
  • Sabra, A. I. (1996). "Situating Arabic Science: Locality versus Essence". Isis 87 (4): 654–70. JSTOR 235197. doi:10.1086/357651.