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Debian GNU/Linux
Debian Etch's GNOME 2.14.3 desktop
Parusahan / developer Debian Project
Kulawarga OS Linux
Katrangan kahanan Current
Vèrsi stabil pungkasan 6.0 squeeze / 6 Februari, 2011
Update method APT
Platform sinengkuyung i386, x86-64, PowerPC, SPARC, DEC Alpha, ARM, MIPS, HPPA, S390, IA-64
Kernel type Monolithic kernel, Linux
Situs wèb

Debian iku sawijining proyèk pangembangan saka mardika, sistem operasi lengkap kang digawé gotong-royong bebarengan déning para sukarelawan sadonya. Gampané, Debian iku salah sawijining distro Linux sing nganggo jeneng resmi Debian GNU/Linux.

Debian kondhang amarga ngresepi filsafat Unix lan piranti empuk mardika, lan lan akèhing pilihan — gagrag paling anyar ngandhut luwih saka 18.000 paket piranti empukkanggo 7 (pitung) arsitektur komputer, sumrambah seka arsitektur ARM sing lumrah tinemu ing sistem katanem (embeded system) lan IBM eServer zSeries arsitektur mainframe nganti sing lumrah manèh kaya arsitektur Intel x86 lan AMD x86-64 sing ana ing komputer pribadi (personal computer). Debian GNU/Linux iku uga dadi lelandhesané sawetara distribusi, klebu Knoppix, Linspire, lan Ubuntu.

Debian uga kawentar amarga sistem pangaturan paket (package management system) (utamané APT), sing migunakaké pangaturan sing kenceng kanggo njaga kualitas. Debian sinengkuyung déning derma liwat Software in the Public Interest, Inc., sawijining organisasi nirlaba organisasi sing mayungi proyèk piranti empuk mardika.

History[sunting | sunting sumber]

Distribusi Debian kabiwarakaké pisanan ing 16 Agustus 1993 déning Ian Murdock, sing banjur dadi mahasiswa ing Purdue University. Murdock nyebut sistemé iku "Debian Linux Release".[1]

Ing Debian Manifesto, Murdock ngajab supaya digawee distribusi sing kagulawentah ing pangrasa tinarbuka, rasa sejatining Linux lan GNU. Jeneng "Debian" iku gabungan seka jeneng pisanan pacaré (saiki dadi bojoné) "Debra" karo jeneng dhèwèké ("Ian"). Ing sabanjur, Debian kaucap sesambungané silabel ingpangrasa Inggris Amerika: /'dɛbiən/.[2]

The Debian Project grew slowly at first and released its first 0.9x versions in 1994 and 1995. The first ports to other architectures were begun in 1995, and the first 1.x version of Debian was released in 1996. In 1996, Bruce Perens replaced Ian Murdock as the project leader. In the same year, fellow developer Ean Schuessler suggested that Debian establish a social contract between the project and its users. Perens distilled the resulting discussion on Debian mailing lists into the Debian Social Contract and the Debian Free Software Guidelines, defining fundamental commitments for the development of the distribution. He also initiated the creation of the legal umbrella organization Software in the Public Interest.

Bruce Perens left in 1998 before the release of the first glibc-based Debian, 2.0. The Project proceeded to elect new leaders and made two more 2.x releases, each including more ports and more packages. APT was deployed during this time and the first port to a non-Linux kernel, Debian GNU/Hurd, was started as well. The first Linux distributions based on Debian, Corel Linux and Stormix's Storm Linux, were started in 1999. Though no longer developed, these distributions were the first of many distributions based on Debian.

In late 2000, the Project made major changes to archive and release management, reorganizing software archive processes with new "package pools" and creating a testing branch as an ongoing, relatively stable staging area for the next release. Also in that year, developers began holding an annual conference called Debconf with talks and workshops for developers and technical users.[3]

On 6 Februari 2011 the Debian Project announced the official release of Debian GNU/Linux version 6.0, codenamed "squeeze".

Development versions[sunting | sunting sumber]

Software packages in development are uploaded to project branches named unstable (alias sid) and experimental. Software packages uploaded to unstable are normally stable versions released by the original upstream developer, but with packaging and other Debian-specific modifications introduced by Debian developers that may be new and untested. Unstable software or software otherwise not ready for the unstable branch is typically placed in experimental.

After a version of a software package has remained in unstable for a certain length of time (depending on the urgency of the software's changes), that package is automatically migrated to the testing branch. The package's migration to testing occurs only if no serious (release-critical) bugs in the package are reported and if other software needed for package functionality qualifies for inclusion in testing.

Since updates to Debian software packages between official releases do not contain new features, some choose to use the testing and unstable branches for their newer packages. However, these branches are less tested than stable, and unstable doesn't receive timely security updates.[4] Starting September 9th, 2005[5] a testing security team provides security updates.[6] In particular, incautious upgrades to working unstable packages can sometimes seriously break software functionality.

After the packages in testing have matured and the goals for the next release are met, the testing branch becomes the next stable release. The latest stable release of Debian (squeeze) is 6.0. It was released on 6 Februari, 2011.

The forthcoming version is codenamed "wheezy."

Project organization[sunting | sunting sumber]

Diagram of the organizational structure of the Project

The Debian Project is a volunteer organization with three foundational documents:

  • The Debian Social Contract defines a set of basic principles by which the project and its developers conduct affairs.
  • The Debian Free Software Guidelines define the criteria for "free software" and so what software is permissible in the distribution, as referenced in the Social Contract. These guidelines have also been adopted as the basis of the Open Source Definition. Although it can be considered a separate document for all practical purposes, it formally is part of the Social Contract.
  • The Debian Constitution describes the organizational structure for formal decision-making within the Project, and enumerates the powers and responsibilities of the Debian Project Leader, the Debian Project Secretary, and the Debian Developers generally.

Currently, the project includes more than a thousand developers. Each of them sustains some niche in the project, be it package maintenance, software documentation, maintaining the project infrastructure, quality assurance, or release coordination. Package maintainers have jurisdiction over their own packages, although packages are increasingly co-maintained. Other tasks are usually the domain of smaller, more collaborative groups of developers.

The project maintains official mailing lists and conferences for communication and coordination between developers. For issues with single packages or domains, a public bug tracking system is used by developers and end-users both. Informally, Internet Relay Chat channels (primarily on the OFTC and freenode networks) are used for communication among developers and users as well.

Together, the Developers may make binding general decisions by way of a General Resolution or election. All voting is conducted by Cloneproof Schwartz Sequential Dropping, a Condorcet method of voting. A Project Leader is elected once per year by a vote of the Developers; in April 2007, Samuel Hocevar was voted into this position, succeeding Anthony Towns. The Debian Project Leader has several special powers, but this power is far from absolute and is rarely utilized. Under a General Resolution, the Developers may, among other things, recall the leader, reverse a decision by him or his delegates, and amend the constitution and other foundational documents.

The Leader sometimes delegates authority to other developers in order for them to perform specialized tasks. Generally this means that a leader delegates someone to start a new group for a new task, and gradually a team gets formed that carries on doing the work and regularly expands or reduces their ranks as they think is best and as the circumstances allow.

Perhaps a more important person to Debian than the Leader is the Release Manager, who sets goals for the next "stable" release, supervises the process, and makes the final decision as to when to release.

A list of many important positions in the Debian Project is available at the Debian organization web page.

Developer recruitment, motivation, and resignation[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Debian Project has a steady influx of applicants wishing to become Developers. These applicants must undergo an elaborate vetting process which establishes their identity, motivation, understanding of the Project's goals (embodied in the Social Contract), and technical competence. More information on the "New Maintainer" process is available at the Debian New Maintainer page.

Debian Developers join the Project for any number of reasons; some that have been cited in the past include:

  • a desire to contribute back to the Free Software community (practically all applicants are users of Free Software);
  • a desire to see some specific software task accomplished (some view the Debian user community as a valuable testing or proving ground for new software);
  • a desire to make, or keep, Free Software competitive with proprietary alternatives;
  • a desire to work closely with people that share some of their aptitudes, interests, and goals (there is a very strong sense of community within the Debian Project which some applicants do not experience in their paid jobs);
  • a simple enjoyment of the iterative process of software development and maintenance (some developers have a nearly obsessive level of dedication to refinement and enhancement of software).

Debian Developers may resign their positions at any time by orphaning the packages they were responsible for and sending a notice to the developers and the keyring maintainer (so that their upload authorization can be revoked).

Debian package life cycle[sunting | sunting sumber]

Flowchart of the life cycle of a Debian package

Each Debian software package has a maintainer who keeps track of releases by the "upstream" authors of the software and ensures that the package is compliant with Debian Policy, coheres with the rest of the distribution, and meets the standards of quality of Debian. In relations with users and other developers, the maintainer uses the bug tracking system to follow up on bug reports and fix bugs. Typically, there is only one maintainer for a single package, but increasingly small teams of developers "co-maintain" larger and more complex packages and groups of packages.

Periodically, a package maintainer makes a release of a package by uploading it to the "incoming" directory of the Debian package archive (or an "upload queue" which periodically batch-transmits packages to the incoming directory). Package uploads are automatically processed to ensure that the upload is well-formed (all the requisite files are in place) and that the package bears the digital signature -- produced with OpenPGP-compatible software -- of a Debian developer. All Debian developers have public keys. Packages are signed to be able to reject uploads from hostile outsiders to the project, and to permit accountability in the event that a package contains a serious bug, a violation of policy, or malicious code.

If the package in incoming is found to be validly signed and well-formed, it is installed into the archive into an area called the "pool" and distributed every day to hundreds of mirrors worldwide. Initially, all package uploads accepted into the archive are only available in the "unstable" suite of packages, which contains the most up-to-date version of each package.

However, new code is also untried code, and those packages are only distributed with clear disclaimers. For packages to become candidates for the next "stable" release of the Debian distribution, they first need to be included in the "testing" suite. The requirements for a package to be included in "testing" is that it:

  • must have been in unstable for the appropriate length of time (the exact duration depends on the "urgency" of the upload).
  • must not have a greater number of "release-critical" bugs filed against it than the current version in testing. Release-critical bugs are those bugs which are considered serious enough that they make the package unsuitable for release.
  • must be compiled for all architectures slated to release.
  • must be a package for an architecture that is slated to release (in other words, packages for architectures that aren't scheduled to release with all the rest are never considered for "testing").
  • must not depend on versions of any packages that do not meet the above conditions.
APT shown on Debian Sarge

Thus, a release-critical bug in a package on which many packages depend, such as a shared library, may prevent many packages from entering the "testing" area, because that library is considered deficient.

Periodically, the Release Manager publishes guidelines to the developers in order to ready the release, and in accordance with them eventually decides to make a release. This occurs when all important software is reasonably up-to-date in the release-candidate suite for all architectures for which a release is planned, and when any other goals set by the Release Manager have been met. At that time, all packages in the release-candidate suite ("testing") become part of the released suite ("stable").

It is possible for a package -- particularly an old, stable, and seldom-updated one -- to belong to more than one suite at the same time. The suites are simply collections of pointers into the package "pool" mentioned above.

Debian releases[sunting | sunting sumber]

As of Februari 2011, the latest stable release is version 6.0, code name squeeze. When a new version is released, the previous stable is labeled oldstable; currently, this is version 5.0, code name lenny.

In addition, a stable release gets minor updates (called point releases) marked, for example, like 3.1r1.

Debian has made the following major stable releases (with code names and release dates):

Version Name Datum
0.93R6 - 26 October 1995 [7]
1.1 buzz 17 June 1996 [8]
1.2 rex 12 December 1996 [9]
1.3 bo 05 June 1997 [10]
2.0 hamm 24 July 1998 [11]
2.1 slink 09 March 1999 [12]
2.2 potato 15 August 2000 [13]
3.0 woody 19 July 2002 [14]
3.1 sarge 06 June 2005 [15]
4.0 etch 08 April, 2007 [16]
5.0 lenny 14 Februari, 2009 [17]
6.0 squeeze 6 Februari, 2011 [18]

The next release will be codenamed "wheezy" [1].

Due to an incident involving a CD vendor who made an unofficial and broken release labeled "1.0", an official "1.0" release was never made.

The code names of Debian releases are names of characters from the movie Toy Story.

The unstable, developmental distribution is nicknamed sid, named after the emotionally unstable next-door neighbour boy who destroyed toys on a regular basis from the first Toy Story.

See [2] for a graph of release dates, updates, and security support.

Ports to various kernels[sunting | sunting sumber]

!Kanggé katrangan langkung jangkep ngenani topik puniki, pirsani GNU variants.

The Project describes itself as creating a "Universal Operating System" and several ports of all userland software to various operating system kernels are under development:

Although these are official Debian projects, there have been no official releases of the non-Linux ports yet, so currently Debian is exclusively a Linux distribution.

Advantages and Criticisms[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Debian system provides more than 18,700 precompiled packages. Since the stable release has been through a rigorous release cycle, the system and packages are stable. Since the rigor of the release cycles can take some time, one technical criticism of Debian is that, the released stable branch can become too old for those on the bleeding edge. Almost three years elapsed between Debian 3.0 and Debian 3.1. Although Debian 4.0 was announced for December 2006[19] (a mere 18 months after the release of 3.1) it was released on April 8 2007. This criticism is countered to some degree by the existence of:

  • Repositories of backported packages (updated package versions compiled in the stable environment), like those on and However, in some cases these packages may not be as well integrated into the system, possibly resulting in problems upgrading or conflicts between backported packages from different sources.
  • The testing branch of Debian often contains updated software that is more stable than its name might indicate. However this branch can become turbulent after a new release of the stable environment.

Another criticism is that some software and documentation is not available in the official Debian software repository because it does not satisfy the Debian Project's strict requirements of freeness.

Documents using the GNU Free Documentation License with sections that the author does not permit to be altered or removed are considered non-free by Debian.[20] In such cases, the software or documentation may be obtained from third-party sources or from the auxiliary non-free section of Debian fileservers, or there may be alternative software in the Debian distribution that serves the same purpose. For example, the proprietary Adobe Acrobat reader is not distributed by Debian, but other free PDF readers are, and the Acrobat reader can be downloaded from Adobe and installed manually on a Debian system.

The Debian Project is criticized by some in the free software community for making available certain proprietary software in the non-free section, rather than excluding it entirely. Similarly, Debian has in the past included free packages with non-free components in its main distribution, but now separates software such as proprietary device drivers in the Linux kernel.

References[sunting | sunting sumber]

See also[sunting | sunting sumber]


External links[sunting | sunting sumber]

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