Wong Ryukyu

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Wong Ryukyu
琉球民族
King Sho En.jpg
Shō En
King Sho Tai.jpg
Shō Tai
Itosu Anko.jpg
Ankō Itosu
Hirokazu Nakaima.jpg
Hirokazu Nakaima
Yōkō Gushiken, Mar. 2003.jpg
Yoko Gushiken
James Iha.jpg
James Iha
Gackt at the Kenshin Festival, 2008(2)(cropped).jpg
Gackt
Takeshi Kaneshiro at BIFF Square, 2011 (cropped).jpg
Jake Shimabukuro.jpg
Jake Shimabukuro
Namie Amuro MAA.JPG
Namie Amuro
2010 Women's British Open – Miyazato Ai (8).jpg
Ai Miyazato
Tlatah mawa cacah jiwa akèh
 Okinawa
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Basa
Kulawarga Basa Ryukyu, Basa Jepang
Agama
Agama Ryukyu, Buda, Shinto
Golongan ètnik magepokan
Wong Yamato, Wong Yayoi [1][2]

Wong Ryukyu utawa Lewchewan[3] (琉球民族 Ryūkyū minzoku?, Okinawa: Ruuchuu minzuku) yaiku wong pribumi ingkang manggon ing Kapuloan Ryukyu, ingkang letakipun wonten ing antarane pulo Kyushu lan pulau Taiwan. Wong Ryukyu umume dipérang dadi sawetara sub-suku, yaiku Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, Yaeyama, lan Yonaguni.[4] Secara administratif, dheweke manggon ing Préfèktur Okinawa lan Préfèktur Kagoshima.

Basa-basané kalebu Kulawarga Basa Ryukyu, salah siji saka rong cabang basa kulawarga Japonik, lan cabang liyane yaiku basa Jepang lan dialek-dialekipun.[4] Populasi pulau kasebut kira-kira ana 1,4 yuta wong (2014).[5] Uga ana 300.000 wong keturunan Ryukyu sing makarya ing pulo Honshu,[6] umume keturunane diaspora Okinawa sing bali saka Amérikah Latin.[6][7]

Sejarah[besut | besut sumber]

Sacara genetis, wong Ryukyu pribumi raket banget karo wong Ainu, lan sedulur liya sing cedhak yaiku karo wong Jepang lan wong Korea.[8] Wong Ryukyu uga paling cedhak nomer loro sing paling cedak karo wong Jomon, sawise wong Ainu. Nanging, ditemokake uga bagean gen sing asale saka Asia Selatan kuna.[9]

Jeneng Ryukyu pisanan muncul ing serat babad Cina ing taun 605, saka Dinasti Sui.[10] Sajrone pirang-pirang abad sawise, Cina umume nyebut jeneng Ryukyu kanggo area sing kalebu Kapuloan Ryukyu lan pulo Formosa.[10]

Pendhudhuk Kapuloan Ryukyu njaga hubungan apik karo Cina sajrone Wangsa Ming.[11] Ing taun 1392, yaiku nalika pamaréntahane Kaisar Hongwu, pangadeg Dinasti Ming, 36 kulawarga Tionghoa saka Fujian diundang Chūzan, sawijining panguwasa ing pulau Okinawa, kanggo mapan ing plabuhan Naha lan kerja dadi utusan, penerjemah, lan pejabat pamrentah.[11] Antarane para pejabat Ryukyu, sing sabanjure katah keturunan saka imigran Tionghoa iki, lair ing China, utawa duwe simbah-simbah Tionghoa.[11] Dheweke menehi kontribusi kanggo kamajuan pribumi Ryukyu ing teknologi lan hubungan diplomatik.[12][13][14]

Ing taun 1429, Hashi ngedegake Kerajaan Ryukyu kapusat ing pulo Okinawa, lan terus njaga hubungan apik karo China.[14] Ing taun 1609, Kerajaan Ryukyu ditaklukake karo Domain Satsuma Kyushu, kanthi izin saka Keshogunan Tokugawa.[14] Wiwit iku, kerajaan kasebut entuk perintah saka daimyo Satsuma,[14] nganti akhire pamrentahan kerajaan dibubarake kanthi resmi lan dadi bagean integral saka Jepang dadi Préfèktur Okinawa ing jaman Kaisar Meiji.[10] Raja Shō Tai kepeksa pindhah menyang Tokyo lan dadi bangsawan luhur ing Kekaisaran Jepang.[15]

Budaya[besut | besut sumber]

Masarakat Ryukyu cenderung nganggep awake dhewe saling rumaket amarga pulau ingkang dipanggoni, lan utamane generasi tuwa asring nganggep awake dhewe iku wong Okinawain lagi wong Jepang.[16][17][18]

Masakan Ryukyu cukup jelas nampilake pengaruh Cina lan Jepang.[19] Wong Ryukyu seneng macem-macem masakan babi, isa saka daging utawa bagean awak liyane.[19][20] Salah sawijining masakan sing terkenal yaiku Rafutei, yaiku pundhak lan weteng babi kang direndhem karo kecap, gula, lan Awamori (minuman keras lokal).[19] Conto masakan liyane yaiku Nakami-no-suimono (sup irisan usus lan lambung babi), Mimikawa-sashimi (selada sunomono karo kuping babi), lan Ashitebichi (rebusan kikil daging babi).[19][20] Kajaba iku, daging babi uga asring digawe duduh kaldu.[19] Wong Ryukyu ora mangan akeh iwak kaya wong Jepang liane, nanging umume nggunakake rumput laut kelp, kayata Konbu-iirichi yaiku tumisan rumput laut lan daging babi.[19] Panganan laut khas liyane yaiku Irabu (sajenis ula laut), kang diasapi lan dimasak alon-alon nganti setengah dina karo rumput laut lan kikil babi, lan dipangan minangka sup.[19][20] Panganan liyane sing misuwur kanggo turis yaiku Champuru, yaiku tumis sayuran bestru, paré, gluten gandum, lan sōmen.[20]

Agama pribumi masarakat Ryukyu yaiku kalebu animisme, lan negesake banget kanggo nyembah leluhur.[21] Kabeh ibadah lan ritual nggunakake basa lokal, dianakake dening para pandhita wanita sing diarani Nuuru, lan uga ana dukun wanita Yuta kanggo ngobrol karo roh leluhur.[21] Upacara prakarsa pandhita Izaihoo dianakake saben 12 taun saben taun jaran, nanging taun 1978 dadi upacara terakhir dianakake amarga ora ana sing ngerti kepiye maneh.[21] Umume, praktik agama pribumi Ryukyu saiki wis mudhun banget.[21]

Karaté minangka seni bela dhiri sing saiki misuwur asale saka Ryukyu, luwih tepate ing pulau Okinawa.[22][23] Wiwitane, Karate dikembangake minangka seni beladiri rahasia kanggo masarakat Okinawa, amarga larangan nggawa senjata sawise penaklukan Ryukyu dening klan Satsuma.[22][23] Seni bela dhiri iki wiwitane dikembangake ing Shuri, Tomari, lan Naha, minangka gabungan seni beladhiri Okinawa asli lan ditambah pengaruh seni beladiri Cina.[22][23] Tokoh sing dianggep bapak saka Karate modern yaiku Higaonna Kanryō lan Ankō Itosu. [22] Ing wiwitan taun 1900an, loro guru seni beladhiri kasebut kabuka nampa siswa lan mulang Karate ing sekolah-sekolah umum.[22][23]

Dhaptar tokoh[besut | besut sumber]

Ing ngisor iki yaiku tokoh saka suku Ryukyu:

  • Chōjun Miyagi, ahli seni beladiri, pangadeg karate Goju-ryu
  • Cyril Takayama, pesulap
  • Gackt, musisi
  • Gichin Funakoshi, pangripta jinis karate Shotokan
  • Higaonna Kanryō, bapak saka Karate modern
  • High and Mighty Color, grup musik heavy rock
  • Mitsuo Matayoshi, politisi
  • Kadekaru Rinsho, penyanyi lagu rakyat
  • Kazuki Ganaha, pemain bal-balan
  • Kenichi Maeyamada, komposer, penulis lirik, lan musisi
  • Motobu Chōki, karateka
  • Namie Amuro, penyanyi
  • Rimi Natsukawa, penyanyi
  • Risa Niigaki, penyanyi, anggota Morning Musume
  • Ryan Higa, aktor, pelawak, produser, artis YouTube
  • Olivia Lufkin, penyanyi, panulis lagu
  • Orange Range, band
  • Shō Tai, raja pungkasan Kerajaan Ryukyu
  • Speed, klompok penyanyi lan penari wanita
  • Takeshi Kaneshiro, aktor
  • Tetsuhiro Daiku, penyanyi lagu rakyat
  • Yui Aragaki, penyanyi, aktor swara, lan model.

Dheleng uga[besut | besut sumber]

Referensi[besut | besut sumber]

  1. An Austronesian Presence in Southern Japan: Early Occupation in the Yaeyama Islands, Glenn R. Summerhayes and Atholl Anderson, Department of Anthropology, Otago University, diakses 22 November 2009
  2. Seafirm, Leon A. (2009). "Linguistically, What is Ryukyuan – Synchronic and diaschronic perspectives" (pre-symposium draft, 2009); diakses 22 November 2009
  3. Lewchew and the Lewchewans: Being a narrative of a visit to Lewchew or Loo Choo, in October, 1850. London, 1853. Tentang Kepulauan Ryukyu. (Uga ditemuake di sini) George Smith.
  4. a b Patrick Heinrich (2012), The Making of Monolingual Japan: Language Ideology and Japanese Modernity, 146, Multilingual Matters, p. 85, ISBN 1-84769-656-2, 9781847696564
  5. Chika Motomura (2014-03-24). "Regional Report: Okinawa Japan (GAIN Report Number: JA4701)" (PDF). Global Agricultural Information Network. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Dibukak ing 2015-11-09.
  6. a b Michael Hoffman. "Okinawa: a long history of hardship". The Japan Times. Dibukak ing 2015-11-09.
  7. Yoshitaka Terada, National Museum of Ethnology. Direview oleh Junko Oba. "Reviewed Work: Drumming Out a Message: Eisa and Okinawan Diaspora in Japan No. 1 (Winter, 2007)". JSTOR. 51: 173–175. |access-date= requires |url= (pitulung)
  8. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. p. 232. ISBN 0-691-08750-4, 9780691087504.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. Ann Kumar (2008). Globalizing the Prehistory of Japan: Language, Genes and Civilisation. Routledge. p. 101-102. ISBN 1-135-78472-8, 9781135784720.
  10. a b c George H. Kerr (1953). Ryukyu Kingdom and Province Before 1945. National Academies. p. 12-14.
  11. a b c Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Dibukak ing 2011-02-04.
  12. Angela Schottenhammer (2007). The East Asian maritime world 1400-1800: its fabrics of power and dynamics of exchanges. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. xiii. ISBN 3-447-05474-3. Dibukak ing 2011-02-04.
  13. Gang Deng (1999). Maritime sector, institutions, and sea power of premodern China. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 125. ISBN 0-313-30712-1. Dibukak ing 2011-02-04.
  14. a b c d Katrien Hendrickx (2007). The Origins of Banana-fibre Cloth in the Ryukyus, Japan. Leuven University Press. pp. 37–46. ISBN 90-5867-614-5. Dibukak ing 2011-01-11.
  15. Papinot, Jacques. (2003). Nobiliare du Japon -- Sho, p. 56 (PDF@60); lihat pula: Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. (1906). Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie du Japon.
  16. Smits, Gregory. Visions of Ryukyu. University of Hawai'i Press. 1999. Pp 1–3.
  17. Kerr, George. Okinawa: History of an Island People. Charles Tuttle Co. 1959. Pp 454–471.
  18. Glacken, Clarence. "The Great Loochoo: A Study of Okinawan Village Life". University of California Press. 1955. Pp 299–302.
  19. a b c d e f g Alan Davidson (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.). OUP Oxford. p. 568. ISBN 0-19-104072-X, 9780191040726.
  20. a b c d Jan Dodd, Simon Richmond (2011). The Rough Guide to Japan (5 ed.). Penguin. ISBN 1-4053-8926-5, 9781405389266.CS1 dandani: uses authors parameter (link)
  21. a b c d Patrick Heinrich, Shinsho Miyara, Michinori Shimoji (2015). Handbook of the Ryukyuan Languages: History, Structure, and Use. 11. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 624. ISBN 1-61451-115-2, 9781614511151.CS1 dandani: uses authors parameter (link)
  22. a b c d e Seikichi Toguchi (1976). Okinawan Goju-ryu: The Fundamentals of Shorei-kan Karate (berilustrasi ed.). Black Belt Communications. pp. 9–14. ISBN 0-89750-018-0, 9780897500180.
  23. a b c d Jim Ollhoff (2010). Karate: The World of Martial Arts. ABDO Publishing Company. pp. 6–8. ISBN 1-61784-342-3, 9781617843426.

Wacanan lanjutan[besut | besut sumber]

  • Kreiner, J. (1996). Sources of Ryūkyūan history and culture in European collections. Monographien aus dem Deutschen Institut für Japanstudien der Philipp-Franz-von-Siebold-Stiftung, Bd. 13. München: Iudicium. ISBN 3-89129-493-X
  • Ota, Masahide. (2000). Essays on Okinawa Problems. Yui Shuppan Co.: Gushikawa City, Okinawa, Japan. ISBN 4-946539-10-7 C0036.
An excellent collection of essays by a peace activist and former governor of Okinawa. Among the issues it discusses are those affecting the development of Ryukyuan identity.
  • Ouwehand, C. (1985). Hateruma: socio-religious aspects of a South-Ryukyuan island culture. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07710-3
  • Pacific Science Congress, and Allan H. Smith. (1964). Ryukyuan culture and society: a survey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Sakiyama, R. (1995). Ryukyuan dance = Ryūkyū buyō. Naha City: Okinawa Dept. of Commerce, Industry & Labor, Tourism & Cultural Affairs Bureau.
  • Yamazato, Marie. (1995). Ryukyuan cuisine. Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture: Okinawa Tourism & Cultural Affairs Bureau Cultural Promotion Division.


Pranala njaba[besut | besut sumber]