Panganggo:Nira Rofiana/Psikotropika

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Sawetara jinis obat psikotropika

Psikotropika ya iku zat utawa usadha, sing awujud alami lan sintètis, nanging dudu narkotika, sing duwèni sifat psikoaktif kang selèktif marang susunan utek sing nyebabaké ngowahi kagiyatan méntal lan tumindak.

Perbawa nggunakaké usadha psikotropika[besut | besut sumber]

Zat utawa usadha psikotropika bisa ngurangi kagiyatan saka utek lan nyebabaké rusaking tumindak, halusinasi, ilusi, gangguan pikiran, owah-owahan ing swasana ati lan bisa nyebabaké ketagihan uga duwèni perbawa saka stimulasi kanggo panganggoné.

Panggunaan psikotropika sing suwé tanpa diawasi lan diwatesi para pejabat keséhatan bisa nyebabaké kahanan sing luwih èlèk. Ora mung nyebabaké ketagihan lan nyebabaké macem-macem lelara, uga bisa nyebabaké cacadé fisik sarta psikis panganggo, malahan asring nyebabaké pati.

Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa kanggo ngilangké peredaran narkotika lan obat-obatan psikotropika, 1988[besut | besut sumber]

Dewan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa wis nyelenggarakan konvènsi babagan pemberantasan psikotropika ing Vienna wiwit tanggal 11 Januari nganti 21 Februari 1971, sing dirawuhi dening 71 negara ditamba 4 negara minangka pengamat.

Minangka reaksi sing sinurung déning keprigelan sing nyebabaké prodhuksi, permintaan, disalahgunakna pamrentah, narkotika lan psikotropika uga bocah lan pemudha dinggo minangka pasar panganggo narkotoka lan psikotropika kanthi ilegal, uga minangka sasaran produksi, distribusi lan perdagangan ilegal narkotika lan psikotropika, wis nyurung laire Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa babagan Pemberantasan ilegal Narkotika lan Psikotropika, 1988.

Konvensi kuwi ngandhut titik-titik pamikiran,ing antarané , kaya ing ngisor iki :

  1. Bangsa lan negara ing donya wigati menehi perhatian lan dadi prioritas paling utama kanggo masalah pambusakan narkotika lan zat psikotropika ilégal.
  2. Pambusakan narkotika lanpsikotropika minangka masalah kabeh negara sing perlu ditangani bebarengan.
  3. Aturan-aturan sing diatur ing Konvensi Tunggal Narkotika 1961, Protokol 1972 babagan owahé Amandemèn Konvènsi Tunggal Narkotika 1961, lan Konvènsi Psikotropika 1971, kudu ditenanani minangka piranti kanggo nyegah lan mbusak sumebaré narkotika lan zat psikotropika
  4. Kudu ngiyat lan ningkatake sarana legal luwih efektif ing konteks kerjasama internasional ing lapangan pidana kanggo mbasmi organisasi kejahatan transnasional sajrone narkotika lan obat psikotropika.

Golongan psikotropika[besut | besut sumber]

Psikotropika sing duweni potensi kanggo nimbulake sindrom dependensi dipecah dadi 4 golongan, yaiku:

  1. Psikotropika golongan I : ya iku usadha psikotropika sing ora digunakaké kanggo tujuan ngusadhani kanthi potènsi sing kuat
  2. Psikotropika golongan II : ya iku psikotropika sing nduwéni kasiat babagan terapi nanging bisa nimbulaké katergantungan.
  3. Psikotropika golongan III : ya iku psikotropika kanthi efek ketergantungan sedengan ing kelompok hipnotik sedatif .
  4. Psikotropika golongan IV : ya iku psikotropika sing nduweni èfèk ketergantungan ènthèng.

Adhedhasar Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa babagan mbusak peredaran narkotika lan psikotropika, ing taun 1988 zat psikotropika bisa digolongake kaya :

Psikotropika golongan I[besut | besut sumber]

  • Broloamfetamine utawa DOB ((±) -4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
  • Cathinone ((x) - (S) -2-aminopropiophenone)
  • DET (3- [2- (diethylamino) etil] indole)
  • DMA ((±) -2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
  • DMHP (3- (1,2-dimetilheptyl) -7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo [b, d] pyran-1-olo)
  • DMT (3- [2- (dimethylamino) etil] indole)
  • DOET ((±) -4-etil-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-phenethylamine)
  • Eticiklidine - PCE (N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamlamine)
  • Etrytamine (3- (2-aminobutyl) indole)
  • Lysergide - LSD, LSD-25 (9,10-didehydro-N, N-diethyl-6-methylergoline-8beta-carboxamide)
  • MDMA ((±) -N, alpha-dimethyl-3,4- (metilene-dioxy) phenethylamine)
  • Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine)
  • Methcathinone (2- (methylamino) -1-phenylpropan-1-siji)
  • 4-methylaminorex ((±) -cis-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline)
  • MMDA (2-methoxy-alpha-methyl-4,5- (methylenedioxy) phenethylamine)
  • N-etil MDA ((±) -N-etil-alpha-methyl-3,4- (methylenedioxy) phenethylamine)
  • N-hydroxy MDA ((±) -N- [alpha-methyl-3,4- (methylenedioxy) phenethyl] hydroxylamine)
  • Parahexyl (3-hexil-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo [b, d] pyran-1-ol)
  • PMA (p-methoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
  • Psilocine, psilotsin (3- [2- (dimetilamina) etil] indol-4-ol)
  • Psilocybine (3- [2- (dimethylamino) etil] indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate)
  • Riklikoprotein - PHP, PCPY (1- (1-phenylcyclohexyl) pyrrolidine)
  • STP, DOM (2,5-dimethoxy-alpha, 4-dimethylphenethylamine)
  • Tenamfetamin - MDA (alpha-metil-3,4- (metilenedioxy) phenethylamine)
  • Tenocyclidine - TCP (1- [1- (2-thienil) sikloheksil] piperidine)
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • TMA ((±) -3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine)

Psikotropika golongan II[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amphetamine ((±) -alpha-methylphenethylamine)
  • Dexamphetamine ((+) - alpha-methylphenethylamine)
  • Phenetylline (7- [[[[alpha-methylphenethyl] amino] etil] theophylline)
  • Levamphetamine ((x) - (R) -alpha-methylphenethylamine)
  • Levomethampheta-mine ((x) -N, alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
  • Mecloqualone (3- (o-klorofenyl) -2-methyl-4 (3H) - quinazolinone)
  • Methamphetamine ((+) - (S) -N, alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
  • Methamphetamineracemate ((±) -N, alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
  • Methaqualone (2-methyl-3-o-tolyl-4 (3H) -quinazolinone)
  • Methylphenidate (Methyl alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate)
  • Phencyclidine - PCP (1- (1-phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine)
  • Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine)
  • Secobarbital (5-allil-5 (1-methylbutyl) asam barbiturat)
  • Dronabinol utawa delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (6aR, 10aR) -6a, 7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6Hupenzo [b, ol)
  • Zipeprol (alpha- (alpha-methoxybenzyl) -4- (beta-methoxyphenethyl) -1-piperazineethanol)

Psikotropika golongan III[besut | besut sumber]

  • Amobarbital (5-etil-5-isopentilbarbiturat asam)
  • Buprenorphine (2l-siklopropil-7-alpha - [(S) -1-hydroxy-1,2,2-trimetilpropil] -6,14-endo-ethano-6,7,8,14-tetrahydrooripavine)
  • Butalbital (5-allil-5-isobutylbarbituric acid)
  • Cathine / norpseudo-ephedrine ((+) - (R) -alpha - [(R) -1-aminoetil] benzil alkohol)
  • Cyclobarbital (5- (1-sikloheksen-1-yl) -5-ethylbarbituric asam)
  • Flunitrazepam (5- (o-fluorofenil) -1,3-dihydro-1-metil-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-siji)
  • Glutethimide (2-etil-2-phenylglutarimide)
  • Pentazosit ((2R *, 6R *, 11R *) - 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-6,11-dimetil-3- (3-methyl-2-butenyl) -2,6-methano -3-benzazocin-8-ol)
  • Pentobarbital (5-etil-5 (1-metilbutil) asam barbiturat)

Psikotropika golongan IV[besut | besut sumber]

  • Allobarbital (5.5-diallylbarbituric acid)
  • Alprazolam (8-kloro-1-metil-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo [4,3-a] [1,4] benzodiazepine)
  • Amfepramone (diethylpropion 2- (diethylamino) propiophenone)
  • Aminorex (2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline)
  • Barbitre (5,5-diethylbarbituric acid)
  • Benzfetamine (N-benzyl-N, alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
  • Bromazepam (7-bromo-1,3-dihydro-5- (2-pyridyl) -2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-siji)
  • Butobarbital (5-butil-5-ethylbarbituric acid)
  • Brotizolam (2-bromo-4- (o-klorofenyl) -9-methyl-6H-thieno [3,2-f] -s-triazolo [4,3-a] [1,4] diazepine)
  • Camazepam (7-kloro-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4 benzodiazepine-2-one dimethylcarbamate (ester))
  • Chlordiazepoxide (7-kloro-2- (methylamino) -5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-4-oxide)
  • Clobazam (7-kloro-1-metil-5-phenyl-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine-2,4 (3H, 5H) -dione)
  • Clonazepam (5- (o-klorofenyl) -1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-siji)
  • Clorazepate (7-kloro-2,3-dihidro-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid)
  • Clotiazepam (5- (o-klorofenyl) -7-etil-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2H-thieno [2,3-e] -1,4-diazepin-2-siji)
  • Cloxazolam (10-kloro-11b- (o-klorofenyl) -2,3,7,11b-tetrahydro-oxazolo- [3,2-d] [1,4] benzodiazepine-6 (5H)
  • Delorazepam (7-kloro-5 (o-klorofenyl) -1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-siji)
  • Diazepam (7-kloro-1,3-dihidro-1-metil-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-siji)
  • Estazolam (8-chloro-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo [4,3-a] [1,4] benzodiazepine)
  • Etchlorvynol (1-kloro-3-etil-1-penten-4-yn-3-ol)
  • Etinamate (1-ethynylcyclohexanolcarbamate)
  • Etil loflazepate (etil 7-kloro-5- (o-fluorofenil) -2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-3-karboksilat)
  • Etil Amfetamin / N-etilampetamine (N-etil-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
  • Fencamfamin (N-ethyl-3-phenyl-2-norborananamine)
  • Fenproporex ((±) -3 - [(alpha-methylphenylethyl) amino] propionitril)
  • Fludiazepam (7-kloro-5- (o-fluorofenil) -1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-siji)
  • Flurazepam (7-kloro-1- [2- (diethylamino) etil] -5- (o-fluorofenil) -1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one)
  • Halazepam (7-kloro-1,3-dihidro-5-phenyl-1- (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) -2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-siji)
  • Haloxazolam (10-bromo-11b- (o-fluorofenil) -2,3,7,11b-tetrahydrooxazolo [3,2-d] [1,4] benzodiazepine-6 (5H)
  • Ketazolam (11-kloro-8,12b-dihydro-2,8-dimethyl-12b-phenyl-4H- [1,3] oxazino [3,2-d] [1,4] benzodiazepine-4,7 (6H) -dione)
  • Lefetamin - SPA ((x) -N, N-dimetil-1,2-diphenylethylamine)

Negara-negara sing melu ing Konvensi Wina[besut | besut sumber]

Konvensi iki dièloki 71 negara, ing antarane :

Ratifikasi Konvensi Wina oleh Indonesia[besut | besut sumber]

Indonésia wektu tanggal 24 Maret 1997 miturut UU No. 7 taun 1997 babagan "ratifikasi Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa babagan pemberantasan sirkulasi narkotika lan psikotropika, 1988 ( [./https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations United Nations] convention against illicit traffic in narcotics drugs and psycotropic substances, 1988), ratifikasi konvènsi kasebut kanthi (Keperluan) kanggo Pasal 32 ayat (2) lan paragraf (3) Konvènsi miturut prinsip supaya ora nampa kewajiban nalika ngirim masalah padu marang Pengadilan Internasional, kajaba kanthi persetujuan Para Pihak.

Pranala njaba[besut | besut sumber]

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