Pandhémi

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Flu Spanyol sing ngakibatkaké kematian wilayah amba ing donya.

Pandhémi (saka basa Yunani πᾶν , pan, "kabeh" lan δῆμος , demos, "masarakat lokal" 'akèh') minangka epidemi penyakit infeksi sing nyebar ing wilayah gedhé[1], kayata pirang-pirang bawana utawa ing saindenging jagad, sing nyebabaké akèh wong. Penyakit endemik nyebar kanthi jumlah infeksi sing stabil dudu pandhémi. Penyakit endemik nyebar kanthi jumlah wong sing kena infeksi kayata kedadeyan influenza mangsa umume dikecualekaké amarga kedadeyan bebarengan ing wilayah gedhé ing dunya tinimbang nyebar ing saindenging jagad. Sajroné sejarah manungsa, ana pirang-pirang pandhémi penyakit kayata cacar lan tuberkulosis.[2] Pandhémi paling fatal ing sejarah sing kacathet yaiku Black Death[3] [4](uga dikenal minangka The Plague[5] ), sing mateni udakara 75-200 yuta wong ing abad kaping 14. [6] [7] Tembung kasebut durung digunakaké nanging kalebu kanggo pandhémi mengko kalebu pandhémi influenza [8]taun 1918 [9](flu Spanyol). [10] Pandhémi saiki kalebu COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) lan HIV / AIDS.[11]

Definisi pandhémi[besut | besut sumber]

Pandhémi minangka epidemi sing ana ing skala sing nglintasi wates internasional, biasané nyebabaké lelara wong ing skala donya. [12] Penyakit utawa kahanan dudu pandhémi amarga mung nyebar utawa mateni akèh wong; iku uga kudu nular. Contone, kanker tberperan akèh wong sing mati, nanging ora dianggep minangka pandhémi amarga penyakit iki ora nular (yaiku gampang ditularaké) lan malah ora gampang nular. [13]

Kekhawatiran babagan pandhémi mbesuk[besut | besut sumber]

Ing sawijining konferensi pers tanggal 28 Desember 2020, Dr Mike Ryan, kepala Program Darurat WHO lan pejabat liyané ujar manawa pandhémi COVID-19 saiki "durung mesthi gedhé" lan "pandhémi sabanjure bisa uga luwih parah." Dhèwèké njaluk persiapan. [14] WHO lan PBB, wis ngelingaké manawa dunya kudu ngatasi sebab pandhémi lan ora mung gejala kesehatan lan ekonomi.[15]

Laporan era 'pandhémi' Oktober 2020 dening Platform Ilmu Politik Antarpemerintah PBB babagan Layanan Biodiversitas lan Ekosistem, ditulis dening 22 ahli ing macem-macem bidang, ujar manawa kerusakan biodiversitas antropogenik mbukak dalan menyang jaman pandhémi lan bisa nyebabaké 850.000 virus ditularaké saka kewan khususe manuk lan mamalia marang manungsa. "Peningkatan eksponensial" ing konsumsi lan perdagangan komoditas kayata daging, minyak kelapa sawit, lan logam, umume difasilitasi dening negara maju, lan populasi manungsa sing saya akèh, minangka pendorong utama kerusakan iki. Miturut Peter Daszak, ketua klompok sing ngasilaké laporan kasebut, "ora ana misteri gedhé babagan panyebab pandhémi Covid-19, utawa pandhémi modern. Kegiatan manungsa sing padha sing nyebabaké perubahan iklim lan keragaman hayati uga nyebabaké risiko pandhémi amarga pengaruh marang lingkungan kita." Opsi kabijakan sing diusulaké kalebu ing laporan kasebut kalebu produksi pajak lan konsumsi daging, nyuda perdagangan margasatwa ilegal[16], ngilangi spesies beresiko dhuwur saka perdagangan satwa legal, ngilangi subsidi kanggo bisnis sing mbebayani tumrap alam[17], lan nggawé jaringan pengawasan global. [18]

Akibat pandhémi ing èkonomi[besut | besut sumber]

Ing 2016, komisi Kerangka Risiko Kesehatan Global kanggo Masa Depan ngramal yèn kedadeyan penyakit pandhémi bakal ngentekaké biaya ekonomi global luwih saka $ 6 triliun ing abad kaping 21 - luwih saka $ 60 milyar saben taun. [19] Laporan sing padha nyaranaké mbuwang $ 4,5 milyar saben taun kanggo pencegahan global lan kemampuan nanggapi kanggo nyuda ancaman sing ditindakaké dening pandhémi, angka sing dikumpulaké Grup Bank Donya dadi $ 13 milyar ing laporan 2019. [20] Ana saranané yen biaya kasebut dibayar saka pajak penerbangan tinimbang saka, kayata, pajak penghasilan, [21] peran lalu lintas udhara penting banget kanggo ngowahi epidemi lokal dadi pandhémi (minangka faktor sing dianggep ing negara model seni panularan penyakit jarak jauh [22] ).

Pandhémi COVID-19 ing 2019-2020 diarepaké bakal menehi pengaruh negatif sing gedhé tumrap ekonomi global, sing bisa ditindakaké sajroné taun-taun mbesuk, kanthi PDB sing mudhun akèh sing diiringi kenaikan pengangguran sing dicathet ing saindenging jagad. Pelambatan kegiatan ekonomi sajroné pandhémi COVID-19 duweni pengaruh banget[23] marang emisi polutan[24] lan gas omah kaca. [25] Pangirangan polusi udara, lan kegiatan ekonomi sing ana sajroné pandhémi, pisanan didokumentasikaké dening Alexander F. Luwih akèh kanggo pandhémi wabah Black Death[26], nuduhaké tingkat polusi paling endhek sajroné 2000 taun kepungkur [27]sajroné pandhémi kasebut, amarga 40 nganti 60% [28] angka kematian ing Eurasia. [29] [30]

Paripustaka[besut | besut sumber]

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  2. Gould 1966.
  3. ABC/Reuters (29 January 2008). "Black death 'discriminated' between victims (ABC News in Science)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 20 December 2016. Dibukak ing 3 November 2008.
  4. "Health: De-coding the Black Death". BBC. 3 October 2001. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 7 July 2017. Dibukak ing 3 November 2008.
  5. "Black Death's Gene Code Cracked". Wired. 3 October 2001. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 26 April 2015. Dibukak ing 12 February 2015.
  6. Aberth 2010.
  7. Deleo & Hinnebusch 2005.
  8. Rosenwald, Michael S. (7 April 2020). "History's deadliest pandemics, from ancient Rome to modern America". The Washington Post. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 7 April 2020. Dibukak ing 11 April 2020.
  9. 1918 Pandemics (H1N1 virus). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  10. "Weekly Virological Update on 05 August 2010". World Health Organization (WHO). 5 August 2010. Dibukak ing 8 April 2020.
  11. Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Das, Anandan; Sengupta, Pallav; Dutta, Sulagna; Roychoudhury, Shatabhisha; Choudhury, Arun Paul; Ahmed, A. B. Fuzayel; Bhattacharjee, Saumendra; Slama, Petr (January 2020). "Viral Pandemics of the Last Four Decades: Pathophysiology, Health Impacts and Perspectives". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ing basa Inggris). 17 (24): 9411. doi:10.3390/ijerph17249411. PMC 7765415 Check |pmc= value (pitulung). PMID 33333995 Check |pmid= value (pitulung).
  12. Porta, Miquel, ed. (2008). Dictionary of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-19-531449-6. Dibukak ing 14 September 2012.
  13. A. M., Dumar (2009). Swine Flu: What You Need to Know. Wildside Press LLC. p. 7. ISBN 978-1434458322.
  14. "WHO official: 'Next pandemic may be more severe'". Arab News (ing basa Inggris). 29 December 2020. Dibukak ing 30 December 2020.
  15. Carrington, Damian (2021-03-09). "Inaction leaves world playing 'Russian roulette' with pandemics, say experts". The Guardian (ing basa Inggris). Dibukak ing 2021-03-10.
  16. Woolaston, Katie; Fisher, Judith Lorraine (29 October 2020). "UN report says up to 850,000 animal viruses could be caught by humans, unless we protect nature". The Conversation. Dibukak ing 1 December 2020.
  17. "Escaping the 'Era of Pandemics': experts warn worse crises to come; offer options to reduce risk". EurekAlert!. 29 October 2020. Dibukak ing 1 December 2020.
  18. Carrington, Damian (29 October 2020). "Protecting nature is vital to escape 'era of pandemics' – report". The Guardian. Dibukak ing 1 December 2020.
  19. "Global Health Risk Framework—The Neglected Dimension of Global Security: A Framework to Counter Infectious Disease Crises" (PDF). National Academy of Medicine. 16 January 2016. Dibukak ing 2 August 2016.
  20. World Bank Group (September 2019). Pandemic Preparedness Financing. Status Update (PDF). Washington: World Bank Group.
  21. "Jevons' paradox and a tax on aviation to prevent the next pandemic". SocArXiv. 12 May 2020. doi:10.31235/osf.io/vb5q3.
  22. "Characterizing the dynamics underlying global spread of epidemics". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 218. 15 January 2018. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9..218W. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02344-z. PMC 5768765. PMID 29335536.
  23. "Pollution made COVID-19 worse. Now, lockdowns are clearing the air". National Geographic Magazine. 8 April 2020. Dibukak ing 22 June 2020.
  24. Le Quéré, Corinne; Jackson, Robert B.; Jones, Matthew W.; Smith, Adam J. P.; Abernethy, Sam; Andrew, Robbie M.; De-Gol, Anthony J.; Willis, David R.; Shan, Yuli (2020). "Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement". Nature Climate Change. 10 (7): 647–653. Bibcode:2020NatCC..10..647L. doi:10.1038/s41558-020-0797-x.
  25. Bauwens, M.; Compernolle, S.; Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.‐F.; Gent, J.; Eskes, H.; Levelt, P. F.; A, R.; Veefkind, J. P. (2020). "Impact of Coronavirus Outbreak on NO2 Pollution Assessed Using TROPOMI and OMI Observations". Geophysical Research Letters. 47 (11): e87978. Bibcode:2020GeoRL..4787978B. doi:10.1029/2020GL087978. PMC 7261997. PMID 32836515.
  26. "Probing the Black Death for lead pollution insights". Harvard University Gazette. 30 May 2017. Dibukak ing 22 June 2020.
  27. More, Alexander F.; Spaulding, Nicole E.; Bohleber, Pascal; Handley, Michael J.; Hoffmann, Helene; Korotkikh, Elena V.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Loveluck, Christopher P.; Sneed, Sharon B. (2017). "Next‐generation ice core technology reveals true minimum natural levels of lead (Pb) in the atmosphere: Insights from the Black Death". GeoHealth. 1 (4): 211–219. doi:10.1002/2017GH000064. PMC 7007106. PMID 32158988.
  28. "Humans Polluted the Air Much Earlier Than Previously Thought". Smithsonian Magazine. 2 June 2017. Dibukak ing 22 June 2020.
  29. "The Black Death helped reveal how long humans have polluted the planet". Popular Science Magazine. 25 September 2017. Dibukak ing 22 June 2020.
  30. "'We have been poisoning ourselves': has ice analysis revealed the truth about lead?". The Guardian. 30 May 2017. Dibukak ing 22 June 2020.