Modhul:Wd

Saka Wikipédia Jawa, bauwarna mardika basa Jawa
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

Dhokumèntasi modhul iki bisa digawé ing Modhul:Wd/doc

-- Original module located at [[:en:Module:Wd]] and [[:en:Module:Wd/i18n]].

local p = {}
local arg = ...
local i18n

function loadSubmodules(frame)
	-- internationalization
	if not i18n then
		if frame then
			-- module invoked by page/template, get its title from frame
			i18n = require(frame:getTitle().."/i18n")
		else
			-- module included by other module, get its title from ...
			i18n = require(arg.."/i18n")
		end
	end
end

local aliasesP = {
	coord           = "P625",
	---------------
	author          = "P50",
	publisher       = "P123",
	importedFrom    = "P143",
	statedIn        = "P248",
	publicationDate = "P577",
	startTime       = "P580",
	endTime         = "P582",
	retrieved       = "P813",
	referenceURL    = "P854",
	archiveURL      = "P1065",
	title           = "P1476",
	quote           = "P1683",
	shortName       = "P1813",
	language        = "P2439",
	archiveDate     = "P2960"
}

local aliasesQ = {
	percentage              = "Q11229",
	prolepticJulianCalendar = "Q1985786"
}

local parameters = {
	property  = "%p",
	qualifier = "%q",
	reference = "%r",
	separator = "%s",
	general   = "%x"
}

local formats = {
	property              = "%p[%s][%r]",
	qualifier             = "%q[%s][%r]",
	reference             = "%r",
	propertyWithQualifier = "%p[ <span style=\"font-size:smaller\">(%q)</span>][%s][%r]"
}

local hookNames = {              -- {level_1, level_2}
	[parameters.property]         = {"getProperty"},
	[parameters.reference]        = {"getReferences", "getReference"},
	[parameters.qualifier]        = {"getAllQualifiers"},
	[parameters.qualifier.."\\d"] = {"getQualifiers", "getQualifier"}
}

-- default value objects, should NOT be mutated but instead copied
local defaultSeparators = {
	["sep"]      = {" "},
	["sep%s"]    = {","},
	["sep%q"]    = {"; "},
	["sep%q\\d"] = {", "},
	["sep%r"]    = nil,  -- none
	["punc"]     = nil   -- none
}

local Config = {}
Config.__index = Config

-- allows for recursive calls
function Config.new()
	local cfg = {}
	setmetatable(cfg, Config)
	
	cfg.separators = {
		-- single value objects wrapped in arrays so that we can pass by reference
		["sep"]   = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep"])},
		["sep%s"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%s"])},
		["sep%q"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%q"])},
		["sep%r"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%r"])},
		["punc"]  = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["punc"])}
	}
	
	cfg.entity = nil
	cfg.propertyID = nil
	cfg.propertyValue = nil
	cfg.qualifierIDs = {}
	
	cfg.bestRank = true
	cfg.ranks = {true, true, false}  -- preferred = true, normal = true, deprecated = false
	cfg.foundRank = #cfg.ranks
	cfg.flagBest = false
	cfg.flagRank = false
	
	cfg.periods = {true, true, true}  -- future = true, current = true, former = true
	cfg.flagPeriod = false
	
	cfg.mdyDate = false
	cfg.singleClaim = false
	
	cfg.pageTitle = false
	
	cfg.langCode = mw.language.getContentLanguage().code
	cfg.langName = mw.language.fetchLanguageName(cfg.langCode, cfg.langCode)
	cfg.langObj = mw.language.new(cfg.langCode)
	
	cfg.states = {}
	cfg.states.qualifiersCount = 0
	cfg.curState = nil
	
	return cfg
end

local State = {}
State.__index = State

function State.new(cfg)
	local stt = {}
	setmetatable(stt, State)
	
	stt.conf = cfg
	
	stt.results = {}
	
	stt.parsedFormat = {}
	stt.separator = {}
	stt.movSeparator = {}
	stt.puncMark = {}
	
	stt.linked = false
	stt.rawValue = false
	stt.shortName = false
	stt.singleValue = false
	
	return stt
end

function applyStringParams(str, ...)
	for i, v in ipairs(arg) do
		str = mw.ustring.gsub(str, "$"..i, v)
	end
	
	return str
end

function unknownDataTypeError(dataType)
	return applyStringParams(i18n['errors']['unknown-data-type'], dataType)
end

function missingRequiredParameterError()
	return i18n['errors']['missing-required-parameter']
end

function extraRequiredParameterError(param)
	return applyStringParams(i18n['errors']['extra-required-parameter'], param)
end

function getOrdinalSuffix(num)
	return i18n.getOrdinalSuffix(num)
end

function addDelimiters(num)
	return i18n.addDelimiters(num)
end

function replaceDecimalMark(num)
	return mw.ustring.gsub(num, "[.]", i18n['numeric']['decimal-mark'], 1)
end

-- used for cleaner output when subst:ituting this module
function replaceHTMLSpaces(str)
	return mw.ustring.gsub(str, "&#32;", " ")
end

function buildWikilink(target, label)
	if target == label then
		return "[[" .. target .. "]]"
	else
		return "[[" .. target .. "|" .. label .. "]]"
	end
end

-- used to make frame.args mutable, to replace #frame.args (which is always 0)
-- with the actual amount and to simply copy tables
function copyTable(tIn)
	if not tIn then
		return nil
	end
	
	local tOut = {}
	
	for i, v in pairs(tIn) do
		tOut[i] = v
	end
	
	return tOut
end

-- used to merge output arrays together;
-- note that it currently mutates the first input array
function mergeArrays(a1, a2)
	for i = 1, #a2 do
		a1[#a1 + 1] = a2[i]
	end
	
	return a1
end

-- used to create the final output string when it's all done, so that for references the
-- function extensionTag("ref", ...) is only called when they really ended up in the final output
function concatValues(valuesArray)
	local outString = ""
	local j, skip
	
	for i = 1, #valuesArray do
		-- check if this is a reference
		if valuesArray[i].refHash then
			j = i - 1
			skip = false
			
			-- skip this reference if it is part of a continuous row of references that already contains the exact same reference
			while valuesArray[j] and valuesArray[j].refHash do
				if valuesArray[i].refHash == valuesArray[j].refHash then
					skip = true
					break
				end
				j = j - 1
			end
			
			if not skip then
				-- add <ref> tag with the reference's hash as its name (to deduplicate references)
				outString = outString .. mw.getCurrentFrame():extensionTag("ref", valuesArray[i][1], {name = "wikidata-" .. valuesArray[i].refHash})
			end
		else
			outString = outString .. valuesArray[i][1]
		end
	end

	return outString
end

function parseWikidataURL(url)
	local i, j
	
	if url:match('^http[s]?://') then
		i, j = url:find("Q")
		
		if i then
			return url:sub(i)
		end
	end
	
	return nil
end

function parseDate(dateStr, precision)
	precision = precision or "d"
	local i, j, index, ptr
	local parts = {nil, nil, nil}
	
	if dateStr == nil then
		return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
	end
	
	-- 'T' for snak values, '/' for outputs with '/Julian' attached
	i, j = dateStr:find("[T/]")
	
	if i then
		dateStr = dateStr:sub(1, i-1)
	end
	
	local from = 1
	
	if dateStr:sub(1,1) == "-" then
		-- this is a negative number, look further ahead
		from = 2
	end
	
	index = 1
	ptr = 1
	
	i, j = dateStr:find("-", from)
	
	if i then
		-- year
		parts[index] = tonumber(mw.ustring.gsub(dateStr:sub(ptr, i-1), "^\+(.+)$", "%1"), 10)  -- remove '+' sign (explicitly give base 10 to prevent error)
		
		if parts[index] == -0 then
			parts[index] = tonumber("0")  -- for some reason, 'parts[index] = 0' may actually store '-0', so parse from string instead
		end
		
		if precision == "y" then
			-- we're done
			return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
		end
		
		index = index + 1
		ptr = i + 1
		
		i, j = dateStr:find("-", ptr)
		
		if i then
			-- month
			parts[index] = tonumber(dateStr:sub(ptr, i-1), 10)
			
			if precision == "m" then
				-- we're done
				return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
			end
			
			index = index + 1
			ptr = i + 1
		end
	end
	
	if dateStr:sub(ptr) ~= "" then
		-- day if we have month, month if we have year, or year
		parts[index] = tonumber(dateStr:sub(ptr), 10)
	end
	
	return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
end

function datePrecedesDate(aY, aM, aD, bY, bM, bD)
	if aY == nil or bY == nil then
		return nil
	end
	aM = aM or 1
	aD = aD or 1
	bM = bM or 1
	bD = bD or 1
	
	if aY < bY then
		return true
	end
	
	if aY > bY then
		return false
	end
	
	if aM < bM then
		return true
	end
	
	if aM > bM then
		return false
	end
	
	if aD < bD then
		return true
	end
	
	return false
end

function getHookName(param, index)
	if hookNames[param] then
		return hookNames[param][index]
	elseif string.len(param) > 2 then
		return hookNames[string.sub(param, 1, 2).."\\d"][index]
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function alwaysTrue()
	return true
end

-- The following function parses a format string.
--
-- The example below shows how a parsed string is structured in memory.
-- Variables other than 'str' and 'child' are left out for clarity's sake.
--
-- Example:
-- "A %p B [%s[%q1]] C [%r] D"
--
-- Structure:
-- [
--   {
--     str = "A "
--   },
--   {
--     str = "%p"
--   },
--   {
--     str = " B ",
--     child =
--     [
--       {
--         str = "%s",
--         child =
--         [
--           {
--             str = "%q1"
--           }
--         ]
--       }
--     ]
--   },
--   {
--     str = " C ",
--     child =
--     [
--       {
--         str = "%r"
--       }
--     ]
--   },
--   {
--     str = " D"
--   }
-- ]
--
function parseFormat(str)
	local chr, esc, param, root, cur, prev, new
	local params = {}
	
	local function newObject(array)
		local obj = {}  -- new object
		obj.str = ""
		
		array[#array + 1] = obj  -- array{object}
		obj.parent = array
		
		return obj
	end
	
	local function endParam()
		if param > 0 then
			if cur.str ~= "" then
				cur.str = "%"..cur.str
				cur.param = true
				params[cur.str] = true
				cur.parent.req[cur.str] = true
				prev = cur
				cur = newObject(cur.parent)
			end
			param = 0
		end
	end
	
	root = {}  -- array
	root.req = {}
	cur = newObject(root)
	prev = nil
	
	esc = false
	param = 0
	
	for i = 1, #str do
		chr = str:sub(i,i)
		
		if not esc then
			if chr == '\\' then
				endParam()
				esc = true
			elseif chr == '%' then
				endParam()
				if cur.str ~= "" then
					cur = newObject(cur.parent)
				end
				param = 2
			elseif chr == '[' then
				endParam()
				if prev and cur.str == "" then
					table.remove(cur.parent)
					cur = prev
				end
				cur.child = {}  -- new array
				cur.child.req = {}
				cur.child.parent = cur
				cur = newObject(cur.child)
			elseif chr == ']' then
				endParam()
				if cur.parent.parent then
					new = newObject(cur.parent.parent.parent)
					if cur.str == "" then
						table.remove(cur.parent)
					end
					cur = new
				end
			else
				if param > 1 then
					param = param - 1
				elseif param == 1 then
					if not string.match(chr, '%d') then
						endParam()
					end
				end
				
				cur.str = cur.str .. chr
			end
		else
			cur.str = cur.str .. chr
			esc = false
		end
		
		prev = nil
	end
	
	endParam()
	
	return root, params
end

function convertRank(rank)
	if rank == "preferred" then
		return 1
	elseif rank == "normal" then
		return 2
	elseif rank == "deprecated" then
		return 3
	else
		return 4  -- default (in its literal sense)
	end
end

function sortOnRank(claims)
	local rankPos
	local ranks = {{}, {}, {}, {}}  -- preferred, normal, deprecated, (default)
	local sorted = {}
	
	for i, v in ipairs(claims) do
		rankPos = convertRank(v.rank)
		ranks[rankPos][#ranks[rankPos] + 1] = v
	end
	
	sorted = ranks[1]
	sorted = mergeArrays(sorted, ranks[2])
	sorted = mergeArrays(sorted, ranks[3])
	
	return sorted
end

function getShortName(ID)
	if ID then
		return p._property({ID, aliasesP.shortName})  -- "property" is single
	else
		return p._property({aliasesP.shortName})  -- "property" is single
	end
end

function getLabel(ID)
	if ID then
		return p._label({ID})
	else
		return p._label({})
	end
end

function Config:convertUnit(unit, link)
	link = link or false
	local itemID, label, lang, title
	
	if unit == "" or unit == "1" then
		return nil
	end
	
	itemID = parseWikidataURL(unit)
	
	if itemID then
		if itemID == aliasesQ.percentage then
			return "%"
		else
			label, lang = mw.wikibase.getLabelWithLang(itemID)
			
			-- don't allow language fallback
			if lang ~= self.langCode then
				label = nil
			end
			
			title = nil
			
			if link or label == nil then
				title = mw.wikibase.sitelink(itemID)
			end
			
			if link then
				if title then
					return " " .. buildWikilink(title, (label or title))
				end
				
				if not label then
					return " " .. buildWikilink("d:" .. itemID, itemID)
				end
			end
			
			return " " .. (label or title or itemID)
		end
	end
	
	return " " .. unit
end

function Config:getValue(snak, raw, link, short, anyLang)
	raw = raw or false
	link = link or false
	short = short or false
	anyLang = anyLang or false
	
	if snak.snaktype == 'value' then
		if snak.datavalue.type == 'string' then
			if snak.datatype == 'url' and link then
				-- create link explicitly
				if raw then
					-- will render as a linked number like [1]
					return "[" .. snak.datavalue.value .. "]"
				else
					return "[" .. snak.datavalue.value .. " " .. snak.datavalue.value .. "]"
				end
			elseif snak.datatype == 'commonsMedia' then
				if link then
					if raw then
						-- will render as a linked number like [1]
						return "[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:" .. mw.ustring.gsub(snak.datavalue.value, " ", "_") .. "]"
					else
						return "[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:" .. mw.ustring.gsub(snak.datavalue.value, " ", "_") .. " " .. snak.datavalue.value .. "]"
					end
				elseif not raw then
					return "[[File:" .. snak.datavalue.value .. "]]"
				else
					return snak.datavalue.value
				end
			elseif snak.datatype == 'geo-shape' and link then
				if raw then
					-- will render as a linked number like [1]
					return "[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/" .. mw.ustring.gsub(snak.datavalue.value, " ", "_") .. "]"
				else
					return "[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/" .. mw.ustring.gsub(snak.datavalue.value, " ", "_") .. " " .. snak.datavalue.value .. "]"
				end
			elseif snak.datatype == 'math' and not raw then
				return mw.getCurrentFrame():extensionTag("math", snak.datavalue.value)
			else
				return snak.datavalue.value
			end
		elseif snak.datavalue.type == 'monolingualtext' then
			if anyLang then
				return snak.datavalue.value['text'], snak.datavalue.value['language']
			elseif snak.datavalue.value['language'] == self.langCode then
				return snak.datavalue.value['text']
			else
				return nil
			end
		elseif snak.datavalue.type == 'quantity' then
			-- strip + signs from front
			local value = mw.ustring.gsub(snak.datavalue.value['amount'], "^\+(.+)$", "%1")
			
			if not raw then
				-- replace decimal mark based on locale
				value = replaceDecimalMark(value)
				
				-- add delimiters for readability
				value = addDelimiters(value)
				
				local unit = self:convertUnit(snak.datavalue.value['unit'], link)
				
				if unit then
					value = value .. unit
				end
			end
			
			return value
		elseif snak.datavalue.type == 'time' then
			local y, m, d, p, yDiv, yRound, yFull, value, calendarID, dateStr
			local yFactor = 1
			local sign = 1
			local prefix = ""
			local suffix = ""
			local mayAddCalendar = false
			local calendar = ""
			local precision = snak.datavalue.value['precision']
			
			if precision == 11 then
				p = "d"
			elseif precision == 10 then
				p = "m"
			else
				p = "y"
				yFactor = 10^(9-precision)
			end
			
			y, m, d = parseDate(snak.datavalue.value['time'], p)
			
			if y < 0 then
				sign = -1
				y = y * sign
			end
			
			-- if precision is tens/hundreds/thousands/millions/billions of years
			if precision <= 8 then
				yDiv = y / yFactor
				
				-- if precision is tens/hundreds/thousands of years
				if precision >= 6 then
					mayAddCalendar = true
					
					if precision <= 7 then
						-- round centuries/millenniums up (e.g. 20th century or 3rd millennium)
						yRound = math.ceil(yDiv)
						
						if not raw then
							if precision == 6 then
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['millennium']
							else
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['century']
							end
							
							suffix = getOrdinalSuffix(yRound) .. suffix
						else
							-- if not verbose, take the first year of the century/millennium
							-- (e.g. 1901 for 20th century or 2001 for 3rd millennium)
							yRound = (yRound - 1) * yFactor + 1
						end
					else
						-- precision == 8
						-- round decades down (e.g. 2010s)
						yRound = math.floor(yDiv) * yFactor
						
						if not raw then
							prefix = i18n['datetime']['prefixes']['decade-period']
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['decade-period']
						end
					end
					
					if raw and sign < 0 then
						-- if BCE then compensate for "counting backwards"
						-- (e.g. -2019 for 2010s BCE, -2000 for 20th century BCE or -3000 for 3rd millennium BCE)
						yRound = yRound + yFactor - 1
					end
				else
					local yReFactor, yReDiv, yReRound
					
					-- round to nearest for tens of thousands of years or more
					yRound = math.floor(yDiv + 0.5)
					
					if yRound == 0 then
						if precision <= 2 and y ~= 0 then
							yReFactor = 1e6
							yReDiv = y / yReFactor
							yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)
							
							if yReDiv == yReRound then
								-- change precision to millions of years only if we have a whole number of them
								precision = 3
								yFactor = yReFactor
								yRound = yReRound
							end
						end
						
						if yRound == 0 then
							-- otherwise, take the unrounded (original) number of years
							precision = 5
							yFactor = 1
							yRound = y
							mayAddCalendar = true
						end
					end
					
					if precision >= 1 and y ~= 0 then
						yFull = yRound * yFactor
						
						yReFactor = 1e9
						yReDiv = yFull / yReFactor
						yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)
						
						if yReDiv == yReRound then
							-- change precision to billions of years if we're in that range
							precision = 0
							yFactor = yReFactor
							yRound = yReRound
						else
							yReFactor = 1e6
							yReDiv = yFull / yReFactor
							yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)
							
							if yReDiv == yReRound then
								-- change precision to millions of years if we're in that range
								precision = 3
								yFactor = yReFactor
								yRound = yReRound
							end
						end
					end
					
					if not raw then
						if precision == 3 then
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['million-years']
						elseif precision == 0 then
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['billion-years']
						else
							yRound = yRound * yFactor
							if yRound == 1 then
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['year']
							else
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['years']
							end
						end
					else
						yRound = yRound * yFactor
					end
				end
			else
				yRound = y
				mayAddCalendar = true
			end
			
			if mayAddCalendar then
				calendarID = parseWikidataURL(snak.datavalue.value['calendarmodel'])
				
				if calendarID and calendarID == aliasesQ.prolepticJulianCalendar then
					if not raw then
						if link then
							calendar = " ("..buildWikilink(i18n['datetime']['julian-calendar'], i18n['datetime']['julian'])..")"
						else
							calendar = " ("..i18n['datetime']['julian']..")"
						end
					else
						calendar = "/"..i18n['datetime']['julian']
					end
				end
			end
			
			if not raw then
				local ce = nil
				
				if sign < 0 then
					ce = i18n['datetime']['BCE']
				elseif precision <= 5 then
					ce = i18n['datetime']['CE']
				end
				
				if ce then
					if link then
						ce = buildWikilink(i18n['datetime']['common-era'], ce)
					end
					suffix = suffix .. " " .. ce
				end
				
				value = tostring(yRound)
				
				if m then
					dateStr = self.langObj:formatDate("F", "1-"..m.."-1")
					
					if d then
						if self.mdyDate then
							dateStr = dateStr .. " " .. d .. ","
						else
							dateStr = d .. " " .. dateStr
						end
					end
					
					value = dateStr .. " " .. value
				end
				
				value = prefix .. value .. suffix .. calendar
			else
				value = tostring(yRound * sign)
				
				if m then
					value = value .. "-" .. m
					
					if d then
						value = value .. "-" .. d
					end
				end
				
				value = value .. calendar
			end
			
			return value
		elseif snak.datavalue.type == 'globecoordinate' then
			-- logic from https://github.com/DataValues/Geo
			
			local precision, numDigits, strFormat, value, globe
			local latValue, latitude, latDegrees, latMinutes, latSeconds
			local lonValue, longitude, lonDegrees, lonMinutes, lonSeconds
			local latDirection, latDirectionN, latDirectionS, latDirectionEN
			local lonDirection, lonDirectionE, lonDirectionW, lonDirectionEN
			
			local latDirectionEN_N = "N"
			local latDirectionEN_S = "S"
			local lonDirectionEN_E = "E"
			local lonDirectionEN_W = "W"
			
			if not raw then
				latDirectionN = i18n['coord']['latitude-north']
				latDirectionS = i18n['coord']['latitude-south']
				lonDirectionE = i18n['coord']['longitude-east']
				lonDirectionW = i18n['coord']['longitude-west']
				
				degSymbol = i18n['coord']['degrees']
				minSymbol = i18n['coord']['minutes']
				secSymbol = i18n['coord']['seconds']
				separator = i18n['coord']['separator']
			else
				latDirectionN = latDirectionEN_N
				latDirectionS = latDirectionEN_S
				lonDirectionE = lonDirectionEN_E
				lonDirectionW = lonDirectionEN_W
				
				degSymbol = "/"
				minSymbol = "/"
				secSymbol = "/"
				separator = "/"
			end
			
			latitude = snak.datavalue.value['latitude']
			longitude = snak.datavalue.value['longitude']
			
			if latitude < 0 then
				latDirection = latDirectionS
				latDirectionEN = latDirectionEN_S
				latitude = math.abs(latitude)
			else
				latDirection = latDirectionN
				latDirectionEN = latDirectionEN_N
			end
			
			if longitude < 0 then
				lonDirection = lonDirectionW
				lonDirectionEN = lonDirectionEN_W
				longitude = math.abs(longitude)
			else
				lonDirection = lonDirectionE
				lonDirectionEN = lonDirectionEN_E
			end
			
			precision = snak.datavalue.value['precision']
			
			latitude = math.floor(latitude / precision + 0.5) * precision
			longitude = math.floor(longitude / precision + 0.5) * precision
			
			numDigits = math.ceil(-math.log10(3600 * precision))
			
			if numDigits < 0 or numDigits == -0 then
				numDigits = tonumber("0")  -- for some reason, 'numDigits = 0' may actually store '-0', so parse from string instead
			end
			
			strFormat = "%." .. numDigits .. "f"
			
			-- use string.format() to strip decimal point followed by a zero (.0) for whole numbers
			latSeconds = tonumber(string.format(strFormat, math.floor(latitude * 3600 * 10^numDigits + 0.5) / 10^numDigits))
			lonSeconds = tonumber(string.format(strFormat, math.floor(longitude * 3600 * 10^numDigits + 0.5) / 10^numDigits))
			
			latMinutes = math.floor(latSeconds / 60)
			lonMinutes = math.floor(lonSeconds / 60)
			
			latSeconds = latSeconds - (latMinutes * 60)
			lonSeconds = lonSeconds - (lonMinutes * 60)
			
			latDegrees = math.floor(latMinutes / 60)
			lonDegrees = math.floor(lonMinutes / 60)
			
			latMinutes = latMinutes - (latDegrees * 60)
			lonMinutes = lonMinutes - (lonDegrees * 60)
			
			latValue = latDegrees .. degSymbol
			lonValue = lonDegrees .. degSymbol
			
			if precision < 1 then
				latValue = latValue .. latMinutes .. minSymbol
				lonValue = lonValue .. lonMinutes .. minSymbol
			end
			
			if precision < (1 / 60) then
				latSeconds = string.format(strFormat, latSeconds)
				lonSeconds = string.format(strFormat, lonSeconds)
				
				if not raw then
					-- replace decimal marks based on locale
					latSeconds = replaceDecimalMark(latSeconds)
					lonSeconds = replaceDecimalMark(lonSeconds)
				end
				
				latValue = latValue .. latSeconds .. secSymbol
				lonValue = lonValue .. lonSeconds .. secSymbol
			end
			
			latValue = latValue .. latDirection
			lonValue = lonValue .. lonDirection
			
			value = latValue .. separator .. lonValue
			
			if link then
				globe = parseWikidataURL(snak.datavalue.value['globe'])
				
				if globe then
					globe = mw.wikibase.getEntity(globe):getLabel("en"):lower()
				else
					globe = "earth"
				end
				
				value = "[https://tools.wmflabs.org/geohack/geohack.php?language="..self.langCode.."&params="..latitude.."_"..latDirectionEN.."_"..longitude.."_"..lonDirectionEN.."_globe:"..globe.." "..value.."]"
			end
			
			return value
		elseif snak.datavalue.type == 'wikibase-entityid' then
			local lang
			local value = ""
			local title = nil
			local itemID = "Q" .. snak.datavalue.value['numeric-id']
			
			if raw then
				if link then
					return buildWikilink("d:" .. itemID, itemID)
				else
					return itemID
				end
			end
			
			if short then
				value = getShortName(itemID)
			end
			
			if value == "" then
				value, lang = mw.wikibase.getLabelWithLang(itemID)
				
				-- don't allow language fallback
				if lang ~= self.langCode then
					value = nil
				end
			end
			
			if link or value == nil then
				title = mw.wikibase.sitelink(itemID)
			end
			
			if link then
				if title then
					value = buildWikilink(title, (value or title))
				elseif not value then
					value = buildWikilink("d:" .. itemID, itemID)
				end
			elseif not value then
				value = (title or itemID)
			end
			
			return value
		else
			return '<strong class="error">' .. unknownDataTypeError(snak.datavalue.type) .. '</strong>'
		end
	elseif snak.snaktype == 'somevalue' then
		if raw then
			return " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue'
		else
			return i18n['values']['unknown']
		end
	elseif snak.snaktype == 'novalue' then
		if raw then
			return ""  -- empty string represents 'novalue'
		else
			return i18n['values']['none']
		end
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function Config:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, qualifierID)
	local qualifiers
	
	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[qualifierID] end
	
	if qualifiers and qualifiers[1] then
		return self:getValue(qualifiers[1], true)  -- raw = true
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function Config:snakEqualsValue(snak, value)
	local snakValue = self:getValue(snak, true)  -- raw = true
	
	if snakValue and snak.snaktype == 'value' and snak.datavalue.type == 'wikibase-entityid' then value = value:upper() end
	
	return snakValue == value
end

function Config:setRank(rank)
	local rankPos
	
	if rank == "best" then
		self.bestRank = true
		self.flagBest = true  -- mark that 'best' flag was given
		return
	end
	
	if rank:sub(1,9) == "preferred" then
		rankPos = 1
	elseif rank:sub(1,6) == "normal" then
		rankPos = 2
	elseif rank:sub(1,10) == "deprecated" then
		rankPos = 3
	else
		return
	end
	
	-- one of the rank flags was given, check if another one was given before
	if not self.flagRank then
		self.ranks = {false, false, false}  -- no other rank flag given before, so unset ranks
		self.bestRank = self.flagBest       -- unsets bestRank only if 'best' flag was not given before
		self.flagRank = true                -- mark that a rank flag was given
	end
	
	if rank:sub(-1) == "+" then
		for i = rankPos, 1, -1 do
			self.ranks[i] = true
		end
	elseif rank:sub(-1) == "-" then
		for i = rankPos, #self.ranks do
			self.ranks[i] = true
		end
	else
		self.ranks[rankPos] = true
	end
end

function Config:setPeriod(period)
	local periodPos
	
	if period == "future" then
		periodPos = 1
	elseif period == "current" then
		periodPos = 2
	elseif period == "former" then
		periodPos = 3
	else
		return
	end
	
	-- one of the period flags was given, check if another one was given before
	if not self.flagPeriod then
		self.periods = {false, false, false}  -- no other period flag given before, so unset periods
		self.flagPeriod = true                -- mark that a period flag was given
	end
	
	self.periods[periodPos] = true
end

function Config:processFlag(flag)
	if not flag then
		return false
	else
		flag = mw.text.trim(flag)
	end
	
	if flag == "linked" then
		self.curState.linked = true
		return true
	elseif flag == "raw" then
		self.curState.rawValue = true
		
		if self.curState == self.states[parameters.reference] then
			-- raw reference values end with periods and require a separator (other than none)
			self.separators["sep%r"][1] = {" "}
		end
		
		return true
	elseif flag == "short" then
		self.curState.shortName = true
		return true
	elseif flag == "mdy" then
		self.mdyDate = true
		return true
	elseif flag == "single" then
		self.singleClaim = true
		return true
	elseif flag == "best" or flag:match('^preferred[+-]?$') or flag:match('^normal[+-]?$') or flag:match('^deprecated[+-]?$') then
		self:setRank(flag)
		return true
	elseif flag == "future" or flag == "current" or flag == "former" then
		self:setPeriod(flag)
		return true
	elseif flag == "" then
		-- ignore empty flags and carry on
		return true
	else
		return false
	end
end

function Config:processFlagOrCommand(flag)
	local param = ""
	
	if not flag then
		return false
	else
		flag = mw.text.trim(flag)
	end
	
	if flag == "property" or flag == "properties" then
		param = parameters.property
	elseif flag:match('^qualifier[s]?$') then
		self.states.qualifiersCount = self.states.qualifiersCount + 1
		param = parameters.qualifier .. self.states.qualifiersCount
		self.separators["sep"..param] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%q\\d"])}
	elseif flag:match('^reference[s]?$') then
		param = parameters.reference
	else
		return self:processFlag(flag)
	end
	
	if self.states[param] then
		return false
	end
	
	-- create a new State for each command
	self.states[param] = State.new(self)
	
	-- use "%x" as the general parameter name
	self.states[param].parsedFormat = parseFormat(parameters.general)  -- will be overwritten for param=="%p"
	
	-- set the separator
	self.states[param].separator = self.separators["sep"..param]  -- will be nil for param=="%p", which will be set separately
	
	if string.sub(flag, -1) ~= 's' then
		self.states[param].singleValue = true
	end
	
	self.curState = self.states[param]
	
	return true
end

function Config:rankMatches(rankPos)
	if self.bestRank then
		return (self.ranks[rankPos] and self.foundRank >= rankPos)
	else
		return self.ranks[rankPos]
	end
end

function Config:timeMatches(claim)
	local startTime = nil
	local startTimeY = nil
	local startTimeM = nil
	local startTimeD = nil
	local endTime = nil
	local endTimeY = nil
	local endTimeM = nil
	local endTimeD = nil
	
	if self.periods[1] and self.periods[2] and self.periods[3] then
		-- any time
		return true
	end
	
	local now = os.date('!*t')
	
	startTime = self:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, aliasesP.startTime)
	if startTime and startTime ~= "" and startTime ~= " " then
		startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD = parseDate(startTime)
	end
	
	endTime = self:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, aliasesP.endTime)
	if endTime and endTime ~= "" and endTime ~= " " then
		endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD = parseDate(endTime)
	elseif endTime == " " then
		-- end time is 'unknown', assume it is somewhere in the past;
		-- we can do this by taking the current date as a placeholder for the end time
		endTimeY = now['year']
		endTimeM = now['month']
		endTimeD = now['day']
	end
	
	if startTimeY ~= nil and endTimeY ~= nil and datePrecedesDate(endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD, startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD) then
		-- invalidate end time if it precedes start time
		endTimeY = nil
		endTimeM = nil
		endTimeD = nil
	end
	
	if self.periods[1] then
		-- future
		if startTimeY and datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD) then
			return true
		end
	end
	
	if self.periods[2] then
		-- current
		if (startTimeY == nil or not datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD)) and
		   (endTimeY == nil or datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD)) then
			return true
		end
	end
	
	if self.periods[3] then
		-- former
		if endTimeY and not datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD) then
			return true
		end
	end
	
	return false
end

function State:claimMatches(claim)
	local matches, rankPos
	
	-- if a property value was given, check if it matches the claim's property value
	if self.conf.propertyValue then
		matches = self.conf:snakEqualsValue(claim.mainsnak, self.conf.propertyValue)
	else
		matches = true
	end
	
	-- check if the claim's rank and time period match
	rankPos = convertRank(claim.rank)
	matches = (matches and self.conf:rankMatches(rankPos) and self.conf:timeMatches(claim))
	
	return matches, rankPos
end

function State:out()
	local result  -- collection of arrays with value objects
	local valuesArray  -- array with value objects
	local sep = nil  -- value object
	local out = {}  -- array with value objects
	
	local function walk(formatTable, result)
		local valuesArray = {}  -- array with value objects
		
		for i, v in pairs(formatTable.req) do
			if not result[i] or not result[i][1] then
				-- we've got no result for a parameter that is required on this level,
				-- so skip this level (and its children) by returning an empty result
				return {}
			end
		end
		
		for i, v in ipairs(formatTable) do
			if v.param then
				valuesArray = mergeArrays(valuesArray, result[v.str])
			elseif v.str ~= "" then
				valuesArray[#valuesArray + 1] = {v.str}
			end
			
			if v.child then
				valuesArray = mergeArrays(valuesArray, walk(v.child, result))
			end
		end
		
		return valuesArray
	end
	
	-- iterate through the results from back to front, so that we know when to add separators
	for i = #self.results, 1, -1 do
		result = self.results[i]
		
		-- if there is already some output, then add the separators
		if #out > 0 then
			sep = self.separator[1]  -- fixed separator
			result[parameters.separator] = {self.movSeparator[1]}  -- movable separator
		else
			sep = nil
			result[parameters.separator] = {self.puncMark[1]}  -- optional punctuation mark
		end
		
		valuesArray = walk(self.parsedFormat, result)
		
		if #valuesArray > 0 then
			if sep then
				valuesArray[#valuesArray + 1] = sep
			end
			
			out = mergeArrays(valuesArray, out)
		end
	end
	
	-- reset state before next iteration
	self.results = {}
	
	return out
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getProperty(claim)
	local value = {self.conf:getValue(claim.mainsnak, self.rawValue, self.linked, self.shortName)}  -- create one value object
	
	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getQualifiers(claim, param)
	local qualifiers
	
	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[self.conf.qualifierIDs[param]] end
	if qualifiers then
		-- iterate through claim's qualifier statements to collect their values;
		-- return array with multiple value objects
		return self.conf.states[param]:iterate(qualifiers, {[parameters.general] = hookNames[parameters.qualifier.."\\d"][2], count = 1})  -- pass qualifier State with level 2 hook
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array
	end
end

-- level 2 hook
function State:getQualifier(snak)
	local value = {self.conf:getValue(snak, self.rawValue, self.linked, self.shortName)}  -- create one value object
	
	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getAllQualifiers(claim, param, result, hooks)
	local out = {}  -- array with value objects
	local sep = self.conf.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier][1]  -- value object
	
	-- iterate through the output of the separate "qualifier(s)" commands
	for i = 1, self.conf.states.qualifiersCount do
		
		-- if a hook has not been called yet, call it now
		if not result[parameters.qualifier..i] then
			self:callHook(parameters.qualifier..i, hooks, claim, result)
		end
		
		-- if there is output for this particular "qualifier(s)" command, then add it
		if result[parameters.qualifier..i] and result[parameters.qualifier..i][1] then
			
			-- if there is already some output, then add the separator
			if #out > 0 and sep then
				out[#out + 1] = sep
			end
			
			out = mergeArrays(out, result[parameters.qualifier..i])
		end
	end
	
	return out
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getReferences(claim)
	if claim.references then
		-- iterate through claim's reference statements to collect their values;
		-- return array with multiple value objects
		return self.conf.states[parameters.reference]:iterate(claim.references, {[parameters.general] = hookNames[parameters.reference][2], count = 1})  -- pass reference State with level 2 hook
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array
	end
end

-- level 2 hook
-- logic determined based on https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Help:Sources
function State:getReference(statement)
	local snakValue, lang, property, url, title
	local value = ""
	local ref = {}
	local snaks = {}
	local params = {}
	local leadParams = {}
	
	if statement.snaks then
		for i, v in pairs(statement.snaks) do
			if v[1] then
				snaks[i] = v[1]
			end
		end
		
		-- don't include "imported from" that has been added by a bot
		if snaks[aliasesP.importedFrom] then
			snaks[aliasesP.importedFrom] = nil
		end
		
		-- use the general template for citing web references if both URL and title are present
		if snaks[aliasesP.referenceURL] and snaks[aliasesP.title] and i18n['cite']['cite-web'] and i18n['cite']['cite-web'] ~= "" then
			params[i18n['cite']['url']]   = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.referenceURL])
			params[i18n['cite']['title']] = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.title], false, false, false, true)  -- anyLang = true
			
			if snaks[aliasesP.publicationDate] then params[i18n['cite']['date']]         = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.publicationDate])                  end
			if snaks[aliasesP.retrieved]       then params[i18n['cite']['access-date']]  = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.retrieved])                        end
			if snaks[aliasesP.archiveURL]      then params[i18n['cite']['archive-url']]  = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.archiveURL])                       end
			if snaks[aliasesP.archiveDate]     then params[i18n['cite']['archive-date']] = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.archiveDate])                      end
			if snaks[aliasesP.author]          then params[i18n['cite']['author']]       = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.author], false, self.linked)       end  -- link = true/false
			if snaks[aliasesP.publisher]       then params[i18n['cite']['publisher']]    = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.publisher], false, self.linked)    end  -- link = true/false
			if snaks[aliasesP.quote]           then params[i18n['cite']['quote']]        = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.quote], false, false, false, true) end  -- anyLang = true
			
			if snaks[aliasesP.language] then
				snakValue = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.language], false, self.linked)  -- link = true/false
				
				if self.conf.langName ~= snakValue then
					params[i18n['cite']['language']] = snakValue
				end
			end
			
			-- if this module is being substituted then build a regular template call, otherwise expand the template
			if mw.isSubsting() then
				for i, v in pairs(params) do
					value = value .. "|" .. i .. "=" .. v
				end
				
				value = "{{" .. i18n['cite']['cite-web'] .. value .. "}}"
			else
				value = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title=i18n['cite']['cite-web'], args=params}
			end
		else
			-- if no general template for citing web references was defined but URL and title are present, add these together
			if snaks[aliasesP.referenceURL] and snaks[aliasesP.title] then
				url   = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.referenceURL])
				title = self.conf:getValue(snaks[aliasesP.title], false, false, false, true)  -- anyLang = true
				
				leadParams[#leadParams + 1] = "[" .. url .. " " .. title .. "]"
				
				-- set to nil so that they won't be added a second time
				snaks[aliasesP.referenceURL] = nil
				snaks[aliasesP.title] = nil
			end
			
			for i, v in pairs(snaks) do
				property = getLabel(i)
				
				if property ~= "" then
					snakValue, lang = self.conf:getValue(v, false, self.linked or (i == aliasesP.statedIn) or (i == aliasesP.referenceURL), false, true)  -- link = true/false, anyLang = true
					
					if lang and lang ~= self.conf.langCode then
						snakValue = "''" .. snakValue .. "'' (" .. mw.language.fetchLanguageName(lang, self.conf.langCode) .. ")"
					end
					
					if i == aliasesP.referenceURL or i == aliasesP.statedIn then
						leadParams[#leadParams + 1] = snakValue
					elseif i ~= aliasesP.language or self.conf.langName ~= snakValue then
						params[#params + 1] = property .. ": " .. snakValue
					end
				end
			end
			
			value = table.concat(leadParams, "; ")
			params = table.concat(params, "; ")
			
			if params ~= "" then
				if value ~= "" then
					value = value .. "; "
				end
				value = value .. params
			end
			
			if value ~= "" then
				value = value .. "."
			end
		end
		
		if value ~= "" then
			ref = {value}  -- create one value object
			
			if not self.rawValue then
				-- this should become a <ref> tag, so safe the reference's hash for later
				ref.refHash = statement.hash
			end
			
			ref = {ref}  -- wrap the value object in an array
		end
	end
	
	return ref
end

function State:callHook(param, hooks, statement, result)
	local valuesArray, refHash
	
	-- call a parameter's hook if it has been defined and if it has not been called before
	if not result[param] and hooks[param] then
		valuesArray = self[hooks[param]](self, statement, param, result, hooks)  -- array with value objects
		
		-- add to the result
		if #valuesArray > 0 then
			result[param] = valuesArray
			result.count = result.count + 1
		else
			result[param] = {}  -- an empty array to indicate that we've tried this hook already
			return true  -- miss == true
		end
	end
	
	return false
end

-- iterate through claims, claim's qualifiers or claim's references to collect values
function State:iterate(statements, hooks, matchHook)
	matchHook = matchHook or alwaysTrue
	
	local matches = false
	local rankPos = nil
	local result, gotRequired
	
	for i, v in ipairs(statements) do
		-- rankPos will be nil for non-claim statements (e.g. qualifiers, references, etc.)
		matches, rankPos = matchHook(self, v)
		
		if matches then
			result = {count = 0}  -- collection of arrays with value objects
			
			local function walk(formatTable)
				local miss
				
				for i2, v2 in pairs(formatTable.req) do
					-- call a hook, adding its return value to the result
					miss = self:callHook(i2, hooks, v, result)
					
					if miss then
						-- we miss a required value for this level, so return false
						return false
					end
					
					if result.count == hooks.count then
						-- we're done if all hooks have been called;
						-- returning at this point breaks the loop
						return true
					end
				end
				
				for i2, v2 in ipairs(formatTable) do
					if result.count == hooks.count then
						-- we're done if all hooks have been called;
						-- returning at this point prevents further childs from being processed
						return true
					end
					
					if v2.child then
						walk(v2.child)
					end
				end
				
				return true
			end
			gotRequired = walk(self.parsedFormat)
			
			-- only append the result if we got values for all required parameters on the root level
			if gotRequired then
				-- if we have a rankPos (only with matchHook() for complete claims), then update the foundRank
				if rankPos and self.conf.foundRank > rankPos then
					self.conf.foundRank = rankPos
				end
				
				-- append the result
				self.results[#self.results + 1] = result
				
				-- break if we only need a single value
				if self.singleValue then
					break
				end
			end
		end
	end
	
	return self:out()
end

function p.property(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._property(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._property(args)
	loadSubmodules()
	return execCommand(args, "property")
end

function p.properties(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._properties(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._properties(args)
	loadSubmodules()
	return execCommand(args, "properties")
end

function p.qualifier(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._qualifier(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._qualifier(args)
	loadSubmodules()
	return execCommand(args, "qualifier")
end

function p.qualifiers(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._qualifiers(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._qualifiers(args)
	loadSubmodules()
	return execCommand(args, "qualifiers")
end

function p.reference(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._reference(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._reference(args)
	loadSubmodules()
	return execCommand(args, "reference")
end

function p.references(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._references(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._references(args)
	loadSubmodules()
	return execCommand(args, "references")
end

function execCommand(args, funcName)
	_ = Config.new()
	_:processFlagOrCommand(funcName)  -- process first command (== function name)
	
	local parsedFormat, formatParams, claims, sep
	local hooks = {count = 0}
	
	local nextArg = args[1]
	local nextIndex = 2
	
	-- process flags and commands
	while _:processFlagOrCommand(nextArg) do
		nextArg = args[nextIndex]
		nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
	end
	
	if nextArg then
		nextArg = mw.text.trim(nextArg)
	else
		nextArg = ""
	end
	
	-- check for optional entity ID of either item or property
	if nextArg:sub(1,1):upper() == "Q" then
		_.entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(nextArg)  -- entity ID of an item given
		_.propertyID = mw.text.trim(args[nextIndex] or "")  -- property ID
		nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
	elseif nextArg:sub(1,9):lower() == "property:" then
		nextArg = mw.text.trim(nextArg:sub(10))
		
		if aliasesP[nextArg] then
			nextArg = aliasesP[nextArg]
		end
		
		_.entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(nextArg)  -- entity ID of a property given
		_.propertyID = mw.text.trim(args[nextIndex] or "")  -- property ID
		nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
	else
		_.entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity()  -- no entity ID given, use item connected to current page
		_.propertyID = nextArg  -- property ID
	end
	
	-- check if given property ID is an alias
	if aliasesP[_.propertyID] then
		_.propertyID = aliasesP[_.propertyID]
	end
	
	_.propertyID = _.propertyID:upper()
	
	if _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then
		-- do further processing if "qualifier(s)" command was given
		
		if #args - nextIndex + 1 > _.states.qualifiersCount then
			-- claim ID or literal value has been given
			
			nextArg = args[nextIndex]  -- don't trim because might be single space representing 'somevalue'
			nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
			
			_.propertyValue = nextArg
		end
		
		for i = 1, _.states.qualifiersCount do
			nextArg = mw.text.trim(args[nextIndex] or "")  -- is a qualifierID
			nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
			
			-- check if given qualifier ID is an alias
			if aliasesP[nextArg] then
				nextArg = aliasesP[nextArg]
			end
			
			_.qualifierIDs[parameters.qualifier..i] = nextArg:upper()
		end
	elseif _.states[parameters.reference] then
		-- do further processing if "reference(s)" command was given
		
		nextArg = args[nextIndex]
		nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
		
		_.propertyValue = nextArg  -- claim ID or literal value (possibly nil)
	end
	
	-- check for special property value 'somevalue' or 'novalue'
	if _.propertyValue then
		if _.propertyValue ~= "" and mw.text.trim(_.propertyValue) == "" then
			_.propertyValue = " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue', whereas empty string represents 'novalue'
		else
			_.propertyValue = mw.text.trim(_.propertyValue)
		end
	end
	
	-- parse the desired format, or choose an appropriate format
	if args["format"] then
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(replaceHTMLSpaces(mw.text.trim(args["format"])))
	elseif _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then  -- "qualifier(s)" command given
		if _.states[parameters.property] then  -- "propert(y|ies)" command given
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.propertyWithQualifier)
		else
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.qualifier)
		end
	elseif _.states[parameters.property] then  -- "propert(y|ies)" command given
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.property)
	else  -- "reference(s)" command given
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.reference)
	end
	
	-- if a "qualifier(s)" command and no "propert(y|ies)" command has been given, make the movable separator a semicolon
	if _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 and not _.states[parameters.property] then
		_.separators["sep"..parameters.separator][1] = {";"}
	end
	
	-- if only "reference(s)" has been given, set the default separator to none (except when raw)
	if _.states[parameters.reference] and not _.states[parameters.property] and _.states.qualifiersCount == 0
	   and not _.states[parameters.reference].rawValue then
		_.separators["sep"][1] = nil
	end
	
	-- if exactly one "qualifier(s)" command has been given, make "sep%q" point to "sep%q1" to make them equivalent;
	-- must come BEFORE overriding the separator values
	if _.states.qualifiersCount == 1 then
		_.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier] = _.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier.."1"]
	end
	
	-- process overridden separator values;
	-- must come AFTER parsing the formats
	for i, v in pairs(_.separators) do
		if args[i] then
			sep = replaceHTMLSpaces(mw.text.trim(args[i]))
			
			if sep ~= "" then
				_.separators[i][1] = {sep}
			else
				_.separators[i][1] = nil
			end
		end
	end
	
	-- make sure that at least one required parameter has been defined
	if not next(parsedFormat.req) then
		error(missingRequiredParameterError())
	end
	
	-- make sure that the separator parameter "%s" is not amongst the required parameters
	if parsedFormat.req[parameters.separator] then
		error(extraRequiredParameterError(parameters.separator))
	end
	
	-- define the hooks that should be called (getProperty, getQualifiers, getReferences);
	-- only define a hook if both its command ("propert(y|ies)", "reference(s)", "qualifier(s)") and its parameter ("%p", "%r", "%q1", "%q2", "%q3") have been given
	for i, v in pairs(_.states) do
		-- e.g. 'formatParams["%q1"] or formatParams["%q"]' to define hook even if "%q1" was not defined to be able to build a complete value for "%q"
		if formatParams[i] or formatParams[string.sub(i, 1, 2)] then
			hooks[i] = getHookName(i, 1)
			hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
		end
	end
	
	-- the "%q" parameter is not attached to a state, but is a collection of the results of multiple states (attached to "%q1", "%q2", "%q3", ...);
	-- so if this parameter is given then this hook must be defined separately, but only if at least one "qualifier(s)" command has been given
	if formatParams[parameters.qualifier] and _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then
		hooks[parameters.qualifier] = getHookName(parameters.qualifier, 1)
		hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
	end
	
	-- create a state for "properties" if it doesn't exist yet, which will be used as a base configuration for each claim iteration;
	-- must come AFTER defining the hooks
	if not _.states[parameters.property] then
		_.states[parameters.property] = State.new(_)
		
		-- if the "single" flag has been given then this state should be equivalent to "property" (singular)
		if _.singleClaim then
			_.states[parameters.property].singleValue = true
		end
	end
	
	-- set the parsed format and the separators (and optional punctuation mark)
	_.states[parameters.property].parsedFormat = parsedFormat
	_.states[parameters.property].separator = _.separators["sep"]
	_.states[parameters.property].movSeparator = _.separators["sep"..parameters.separator]
	_.states[parameters.property].puncMark = _.separators["punc"]
	
	if _.entity and _.entity.claims then claims = _.entity.claims[_.propertyID] end
	if claims then
		-- first sort the claims on rank to pre-define the order of output (preferred first, then normal, then deprecated)
		claims = sortOnRank(claims)
		
		-- then iterate through the claims to collect values
		return concatValues(_.states[parameters.property]:iterate(claims, hooks, State.claimMatches))  -- pass property State with level 1 hooks and matchHook
	else
		return ""
	end
end

function p.label(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._label(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._label(args, _)
	_ = _ or Config.new()
	_.curState = State.new(_)
	
	loadSubmodules()
	
	local ID = nil
	local label = nil
	local title = nil
	local prefix= ""
	local lang
	
	local nextArg = args[1]
	local nextIndex = 2
	
	while _:processFlag(nextArg) do
		nextArg = args[nextIndex]
		nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
	end
	
	if nextArg then
		ID = mw.text.trim(nextArg)
		
		if ID == "" then
			ID = nil
		elseif ID:sub(1,9):lower() == "property:" then
			ID = mw.text.trim(ID:sub(10))
		end
	end
	
	if ID then
		if aliasesP[ID] then
			ID = aliasesP[ID]
		end
		
		ID = ID:upper()
		
		-- check if this is a valid ID, and if the number is not larger than max int (to prevent error)
		if not string.match(ID, '^[QP]%d+$') or tonumber(string.match(ID, '%d+')) > 2147483647 then
			return ""
		end
	end
	
	if not _.curState.rawValue or _.pageTitle then
		if not _.pageTitle then
			-- (1) try short name
			if _.curState.shortName then
				if ID and ID:sub(1,1) == "P" then
					label = getShortName("Property:" .. ID)
				else
					label = getShortName(ID)
				end
				
				if label == "" then
					label = nil
				end
			end
			
			-- (2) try label
			if not label then
				label, lang = mw.wikibase.getLabelWithLang(ID)
				
				-- don't allow language fallback
				if lang ~= _.langCode then
					label = nil
				end
			end
		end
		
		-- (3) try sitelink/title
		if not label or _.curState.linked then
			if not ID then
				title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle().prefixedText
			elseif ID:sub(1,1) == "Q" then
				title = mw.wikibase.sitelink(ID)
			elseif label then
				-- properties have no sitelink, 'title = ID' should only be set
				-- if there is a 'label' already and if it needs to be linked;
				-- otherwise, it would be 'label = title == ID' even if '_.pageTitle' is set
				title = ID
				prefix = "d:Property:"
			end
			
			label = label or title
		end
	end
	
	-- (4) try entity ID (i.e. raw value)
	if not label and not _.pageTitle then
		if not ID then
			label = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
		elseif mw.wikibase.getEntity(ID) then
			label = ID
			
			if ID:sub(1,1) == "P" then
				prefix = "Property:"
			end
		end
		
		prefix = "d:" .. prefix
		
		title = label
	end
	
	if not label then
		label = ""
	end
	
	-- add optional link
	if _.curState.linked and title then
		label = buildWikilink(prefix .. title, label)
	end
	
	return label
end

function p.title(frame)
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	return p._title(copyTable(frame.args))
end

function p._title(args, _)
	_ = _ or Config.new()
	_.pageTitle = true
	-- loadSubmodules() will already be called by _label()
	return p._label(args, _)
end

-- main function that is supposed to be used by wrapper templates
function p.main(frame)
	local f, args, i, v
	
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	
	-- get the parent frame to take the arguments that were passed to the wrapper template
	frame = frame:getParent() or frame
	
	if not frame.args[1] then
		error(i18n["errors"]["no-function-specified"])
	end
	
	f = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1])
	
	if f == "main" then
		error(i18n["errors"]["main-called-twice"])
	end
	
	assert(p["_"..f], applyStringParams(i18n['errors']['no-such-function'], f))
	
	-- copy arguments from immutable to mutable table
	args = copyTable(frame.args)
	
	-- remove the function name from the list
	table.remove(args, 1)
	
	return p["_"..f](args)
end

return p