Cicero

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Marcus Tullius Cicero
CiceroBust.jpg
Cicero watara umur 60, arupa reca dhadha marmer
Lair 3 Januari, 106 SM
Arpinum, Italy
Séda 7 Desember, 43 SM
Formia, Italia
Pagawéan Pulitisi, ahli hukum, orator lan filsuf
Kabangsan Ancient Roman
Subyek pulitik, hukum, filsafat, wicara / pidhato
Literary movement Golden Age Latin
Karya pisanan Politics: Pro Quinctio
Filsafat: De Inventione
Pangaruh marang Plato lan Platonisme Tengahan, Stoicisme
Kapangaruh déning Tacitus, Plinius, Quintilian Duwé pengaruh kang kenthel marang budaya Eropah, luwih saka 2000 taun

Marcus Tullius Cicero (basa Latin klasik uniné [ˈkikeroː], biasané uniné /ˈsɪsəroʊ/ jroning basa Inggris; 3 Januari, 106 SM7 Desember, 43 SM) kuwi sawijining negarawan Romawi, ahli hukum, èlmuwan pulitik, lan filsuf. Cicero dianggep salah siji ahli pidhato (orator) kang paling pinter ing Roma, lan uga seniman prosa.[1][2]

Cicero biasané dianggep salah siji pamikir budaya Romawi kang komplit lan sarwa bisa (versatile) lan tulisané dadi tuladha (paragon) tumrap Latin klasik. Cicero ngenalaké bab Romawi jroning pamikiran utama ing filsafat Yunani lan ngripta kosa kata ing filsafat Latin. Minangka ahli pidhato kang ngédap-édapi lan ahli hukum kang suksès, Cicero mbokmanawa mikir yèn karir pulitiké minangka prèstasi kang paling wigati. Ananging, dina iki Cicero luwih diregani utamané saka tulisané bab humanisme filsafat lan pulitik. Layang-layangé kang akèh banget, akèh-aké ditujokaké marang mitrané: Atticus, nduwèni pengaruh kang khusus, lan ngenalaké seni nulis layang tumrap budaya Eropah. Cornelius Nepos, panulis biografi Atticus saka abad ka-1 SM, nyathet yèn layangé Cicero marang Atticus ngandhut rincian "bab katundhukan / kacendherungan (inclination) para pamimpin, kasalahan / tanggung jawab (faults) para jendral, lan revolusi jroning pamaréntahan", kang para pamacané ora pati butuh bab sejarah mangsa kasebut.[3]

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  1. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, a portrait (1975) p.303
  2. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero (1964)p.300-301
  3. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Atticus 16, trans. John Selby Watson.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Cicero’s letters to Atticus, Vol, I, II, IV, VI, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 1965
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Latin extracts of Cicero on Himself, translated by Charles Gordon Cooper , University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1963
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Selected Political Speeches, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1969
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Selected Works, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1971
  • Everitt, Anthony 2001, Cicero: the life and times of Rome's greatest politician, Random House, hardback, 359 pages, ISBN 0-375-50746-9
  • Cowell, Cicero and the Roman Republic, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1973
  • Haskell, H.J.: (1946) This was Cicero, Fawcett publications, Inc. Greenwich, Conn. USA
  • Gibbon, Edward. (1793). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire., The Modern Library (2003), ISBN 0-375-75811-9. Edited, Abridged, and with a Critical Foreword by Hans-Friedrich Mueller.
  • Gruen, Erich, The last Generation of the Roman Republic, University of California Press, USA, 1974
  • March, Duane A., "Cicero and the 'Gang of Five'," Classical World, volume 82 (1989) 225-234
  • Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1972
  • Rawson, Elizabeth (1975) Cicero, A portrait, Allen Lane, London ISBN 0-7139-0864-5
  • Rawson, Elizabeth, Cicero, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1975
  • Scullard, H. H. From the Gracchi to Nero, University Paperbacks, Great Britain, 1968
  • Smith, R. E., Cicero the Statesman, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 1966
  • Strachan-Davidson, J. L., Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic, University of Oxford Press, London, 1936
  • Taylor, H. (1918). Cicero: A sketch of his life and works. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co.

Pranala njaba[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Pirsani galeri bab Cicero ing Wikimedia Commons.
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Wikisource gadhah karya asli ingkang karipta déning utawi seratan bab:
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Cithakan:Plutarch


Sing mengku  sadurungé:
Lucius Julius Caesar and Gaius Marcius Figulus
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Gaius Antonius Hybrida
63 BC
Diganti déning:
Decimus Junius Silanus and Lucius Licinius Murena



Ana loop cithakan: Cithakan:Persondata

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