Basa Dari

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Dari
Dari Persian, Afghan Persian
دری
Dari.png
Dari in Persian script
(Nastaʿlīq style)
Pangucapan Cithakan:IPA-prs
Asal Afghanistan
Panyatur asli
1.250 million (2000–2011)[1]
native language of 25–50% of the Afghan population.[2][2][3][4]
Dhialèk Kaboli, Mazari, Herati, Badakhshi, Panjshiri, Laghmani, Sistani, Aimaqi, Hazaragi[5]
Persian alphabet
Status resmi
Basa resmi ing
 Afghanistan
Diatur déning Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Kodhe basa
ISO 639-3 Rupa-rupa:
prs – Dari, Afghan Persian
aiq – Aimaq
haz – Hazaragi
Glottolog dari1249  (Dari)[6]
aima1241  (Aimaq)[7]
haza1239  (Hazaragi)[8]
Linguasphere 58-AAC-ce (Dari) + 58-AAC-cdo & cdp (Hazaragi) + 58-AAC-ck (Aimaq)
Artikel iki ngandhut lambang-lambang fonètis AFI. Tanpa sengkuyungan tèhnis sing trep, Sampéyan namung bakal ndeleng lambang-lambang pitakon, kothak, utawa liyané, dudu pralambang Unicode.

Basa Dari atawa basa Pérsi-Dari, Pérsi-Afghan, ya iku dialék basa Pèrsi kang dituturnang ning Afghanistan. Basa iki dadi salah siji sing rong basa resmi Afghanistan, séjéné ya iku Basa Pashtun [9]. Tembung Dari iku asalé sing dar kang tegesé basa karajan ning jaman Karajan Sasaniyah[10]. Susunan wyakarana basaé ampir pada karo basa Pèrsia ning Iran[11]. Minangka nagara dwibasa, basa Dari duwé posisi kang dominan tinimbang basa Pashtun. Akéh tulisan-tulisan modern kaya déné sastra iku ditulis nganggo basa Dari sanajan mayoritas Afghanistan iku suku Pasthun[9]. Nyebaré basa Dari ning nagara iku amarga nyebaré wong kang nganut agama Zoroastrian sing Iran. Penganut Zoroastrian kang rata-rata wong Pérsi iku ngadegnang désa-désa ning Qasémabad, Afghanistan. Wong Pérsia muslim liyané uga sumebar ning wewengkon kono, sesanding karo wong Pérsia Zoroastrian. Sedurungé jaman Islam, wong Afghanistan uga wis ana gayutan karo karajan Pérsia kuna. Mulané iku, basa Dari iku wis kaya basa linguafranca ning wong Pashtun Afghan[12].

Minangka basa sastra[besut | besut sumber]

Ning wewengkon nagara Afghanistan, basa Dari wis kawentar dadi basa pengantar sastra[13]. Amarga iku akèh keding karya sastra kang dicipta ning kana.  Sebab dadi basa sastra amarga basa Dari uga dari basa lingua franca lan duwé sajarah kang suwé. Karya sastra Dari kang kawentar ya iku Shahnaméh kang ditulis karo Ferdouwsi. Déwéké dadi salah siji sastrawan Pérsi kang paling kawentar. Uga ana Rubayyat déning Umar Khayam. Ning kalangan wong-wong Éropa, Umar Khayam uga dadi sastrawan kang disenengi[13]. Ning isor iki pratélan sastrawan Dari-Pérsi[14][15]:

Counted according to sources from these Internet sites[14][15]

Aran Sastrawan Pérsi Abad Iran Turan Parsi (Persian) Farsi (arabisasi) Dari (basa karajan) Khorasan Raya Pahlavi Persia Pertengahan
Rudaki 9th lan 10th 1 6
Farrukhi Sistani 9th 10th 16 1 15 Parsa’i 10 1
Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr 10th 1 2
Ferdowsi 10th and 11th 800 + 150 + 100+ 2 25 29
Asadi Tusi 11th 51 5 1 1 loghat ye fors =
Masud Sa'd Salman 11th 23 2 19 Nazm o Nassr Dari 13
Manuchehri 11th 5 3 4
Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani 11th 15 10 12 Parsa’i 2 1 28 3
Nasir Khusraw 11 th 1 1 19 2 79 2
Mahsati 11th and 12th 1 1
Anwari 12th 13 3 2 1 20
Khaqani 12th 2 1 4 1 2 Nazm e Dari 40 180
Nizami Ganjavi 12 th 37 2 12 3 Nazm lan Dastan 25 6
Amir Khusrow 13 th 14th 2 7 6 13
Saadi Shirazi 13th 1 1 6+ 7
Rumi 13 th 14th 1 1 29 6
Hafez 14th 6 9 2 Nazm ye Dari
Ubayd Zakani 14th 1 1 4 1
Muhtasham Kashani 16th 12 9 3 4
Saib Tabrizi 17th 10 7 3 5
Muhammad Iqbal 19th-séda 1938 19 4 3 1 Tarz e 1
Parvin Etesami 19th/séda 1941 2 Parsa’i

Pengaruh basa Dari[besut | besut sumber]

Basa Dari duwé pengaruh akèh ning daérah Asia Kidul, ya iku ning wewengkon Karajan Mughal lan Kesultanan Bengal[16]. Karajan-karajan iki nganggo basa Persi-Dari minangka basa resmi karajan. Amarga iku, akèh tulisan basa Dari ning India.  Lan basa Urdu, Punjabi, lan Bengal uga kena pengaruh sing basa Dari Persi[16].

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. ^ Dari, Afghan Persian ing Ethnologue (éd. ka-18, 2015)
    Aimaq ing Ethnologue (éd. ka-18, 2015)
    Hazaragi ing Ethnologue (éd. ka-18, 2015)
  2. ^ a b "CIA – The World Factbook, "Afghanistan", Updated on 8 July 2010". Cia.gov. Dijupuk 19 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica, online ed. Dijupuk 10 December 2010. Persian (2) is the language most spoken in Afghanistan. The native tongue of twenty five percent of the population... 
  4. ^ "Dari". UCLA International Institute: Center for World Languages. University of California, Los Angeles. Dijupuk 10 December 2010. 
  5. ^ "Iranica, "Afghanistan: v.Languages", Table 11". Dijupuk 19 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Dari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Jerman: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  7. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Aimaq". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Jerman: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  8. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hazaragi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Jerman: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  9. ^ a b Ahmadi, Wali (2008). Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan: Anomalous Visions of History and Form. New York: Routledge. kk. 1–15. ISBN 0-203-94602-2. 
  10. ^ "DARĪ". Iranica Online. Dijupuk 12 Sept 2017.  Priksa gandra date ing: |access-date= (pitulung)
  11. ^ Baker, Adam (May 24, 2016). "A Learner’s Grammar of Dari" (Press release). 
  12. ^ Farudi, Annahita; Toosarvandani, M. Doustdar (2004). "The Dari Language Project". Fieldwork Endeavor Summary of Findings: 1–15. 
  13. ^ a b Baker, Adam. "A Learner’s Grammar of Dari". Course: 4. 
  14. ^ a b http://www.ganjnama.com/search/
  15. ^ a b http://ganjoor.net/
  16. ^ a b "South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny". Google Books. Dijupuk 12 September 2017.