Aksara Xiao'erjing

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Aksara Xiao'erjing
Xiao-Er-Jin.jpg
Kamus Basa Cina-Basa Arab-Xiaoerjing saka zaman kemerdekaan RRT
Cina Padatan 小兒經
Cina Prasaja 小儿经
Xiao'erjing شِيَوْ عَر دٍ
Werdi literal Tulisan Cah Cilik
Xiao'erjin
Cina Padatan 小兒錦
Cina Prasaja 小儿锦
Xiaojing
Cina Padatan 小經
Cina Prasaja 小经
Xiao'erjing شِيَوْ دٍ
Werdi literal Tulisan Minoritas
Xiaojing
Cina Padatan 消經
Cina Prasaja 消经
Werdi literal Tulisan kang direvisi
Sawijining kaca buku kang nganggo tulisan Xiao'erjing, diterbitne ning Tashkent ing taun 1899.

Xiao'erjing, Xiao'erjin, utawa Xiaor jin (arti harfiahé "naskah bocah-bocah" utawa "tulisan minoritas") ya iku praktik panulisan basa Sinitis kaya ta basa Mandarin (mligi dhialèk Lanyin, Zhongyuan lan Mandarin Lor Wetan) utawa basa Dungan nganggo aksara perso-arab.[1][2][3][4] Aksara iki biasané dinggo karo wong-wong Islam ing Cina lan Asia Tengah.

Xiao'erjing ditulis saka tengen mengiwa, kaya cara nulis aksara Arab. Sebabé Xiao'erjing didasarké ing panulisan Arab kang wis dimodifikasi.

Kanggoné[besut | besut sumber]

Xiao'erjing bisa dipérang dadi loro ing cara nggunakaké, ya iku "Panulisan Padinan" lan "Panulisan Masjid". "Panulisan Masjid" biasa dinggo para imam lan jamaah ing mssjid lan madrasah. Panulisané nggunakaké Basa Arab lan ora nganggo Basa Cina babar blas. "Panulisan padinan" dinggo wong-wong Hui lan dinggo nulis Basa Cina.[5] Xiaoerjing uga dinggo nulis buku-buku serapan, kaya ta saka basa Persia.[6]

Xiaojing akèh digunakake karo Muslim Cina kang ora bisa maca Aksara Han. Nanging, aksara iki ora bisa ngatoanaké irama pangucapan Basa Cina, kayata xi'an lan xian.[7] Xiaoerjing luwih prasaja tinimbang Aksara Han ing babagan ngatonaké basa Cina.[8]

Aksara[besut | besut sumber]

Xiao'erjing nduweni 36 huruf lan dumadi 4 huruf vokal. 36 huruf dumadi saka 28 huruf Arab, 4 huruf Persia, 2 huruf modifikasi, lan 4 huruf mirunggan.

Ater-ater lan huruf konsonan[besut | besut sumber]

Aksara Ngarep-Tengah-Mburi Cara Ngucap ing Basa Cina Hanyu Pinyin Cara Ucap ing Basa Arab Cara Ucap ing Basa Persia
1 Alif-individua.svg Alif-fina.svg /a/ [ɑ], [a] a, a-, -a, -a- [ʔ], [aː], [æː] [ʔ], [ɔ], [æ]
2 Baa-individua.svg Baa-finamezakomenca.svg /p/ [p], [b]- b- [b] [b]
3 Paa-individua.svg Paa-finamezakomenca.svg /pʰ/ [pʰ]- p- ra ana [p]
4 Taa-individua.svg Taa-finamezakomenca.svg /tʰ/ [tʰ]- t- [t] [t]
5 THaa-individua.svg THaa-finamezakomenca.svg [tɕʰ]-, [ɕ]- q-, x- [θ] [s]
6 Tahah-individua.svg Tahah-finamezakomenca.svg [tɕʰ]- q- ra ana ra ana
7 Jiim-individua.svg Jiim-finamezakomenca.svg /ʈ͡ʂ/ [ʈ͡ʂ], [ɖ͡ʐ] zh- [dʒ] [dʒ]
8 CHaa-individua.svg CHaa-finamezakomenca.svg /ʈ͡ʂʰ/ [ʈ͡ʂʰ] ch- ra ana [tʃ]
9 HHaa-individua.svg HHaa-finamezakomenca.svg /x/ [x]- h- [ħ] [h]
10 KHaa-individua.svg KHaa-finamezakomenca.svg /x/ [x]- h- [x] [x]
11 Daal-individua.svg Daal-fina.svg /t/ [t], [d]-; [tɕ]- d-, j- [d] [d]
12 DHaal-individua.svg DHaal-fina.svg /ʦ/ [t͡s], [d͡z]- z- [ð] [z]
13 Raa-individua.svg Raa-fina.svg /ɻ/ -[ɻ] -r [r] [ɾ]
14 Zai-individua.svg Zai-fina.svg ra ana ra ana [z] [z]
15 Jaa-individua.svg Jaa-fina.svg /ɻ/ [ɻ], [ʐ]- r- ra ana [ʒ]
16 Siin-individua.svg Siin-finamezakomenca.svg /s/ [s]-, [ɕ]- s-, x- [s] [s]
17 Saa-individua.svg Saa-finamezakomenca.svg /s/ [s]- s- ra ana ra ana
18 SHiin-individua.svg SHiin-finamezakomenca.svg /ʂ/ [ʂ]-, [ɕ]- sh-, x- [ʃ] [ʃ]
19 SSaad-individua.svg SSaad-finamezakomenca.svg /s/ [s]- s- [sˤ]|[sˠ] [s]
20 DDaad-individua.svg DDaad-finamezakomenca.svg ra ana ra ana [dˤ]|[ðˠ] [z]
21 Caa-individua.svg Caa-finamezakomenca.svg /ʦʰ/ [t͡sʰ]- c- ra ana ra ana
22 TTaa-individua.svg TTaa-finamezakomenca.svg /ʦ/ [t͡s], [d͡z]- z- [tˤ]|[tˠ] [t]
23 ZZaa-individua.svg ZZaa-finamezakomenca.svg /ʦ/ [t͡s], [d͡z]- z- [ðˤ]|[ðˠ] [z]
24 Ain-individua.svg Ain-finamezakomenca.svg /ə/ e, e-, -e, -e- [ʕ] [ʔ]
25 GHain-individua.svg GHain-finamezakomenca.svg ra ana ra ana [ɣ]|[ʁ], [q] [ɣ]|[ɢ]
26 Faa-individua.svg Faa-finamezakomenca.svg /f/ [f]- f- [f] [f]
27 Qaaf-individua.svg Qaaf-finamezakomenca.svg /k/ [k], [ɡ]- g- [q], [ɡ], [ʔ], [k], [ɢ] [ɣ]|[ɢ], [q]
28 Kaaf-individua.svg Kaaf-finamezakomenca.svg ra ana ra ana [k] ra ana
28 Kahah-individua.svg Kahah-finamezakomenca.svg /kʰ/ [kʰ]- k- [k] [k]
29 Gaaf-individua.svg Gaaf-finamezakomenca.svg ra ana ra ana ra ana [ɡ]
30 NGaa-individua.svg NGaa-finamezakomenca.svg [ŋ]-, [ɲ]- ng-, gn- ra ana ra ana
31 Laam-individua.svg Laam-finamezakomenca.svg /l/ [l]- l- [l]|[lˤ] [l]
32 Miim-individua.svg Miim-finamezakomenca.svg /m/ [m]-, /n/ [n]- m-, n- [m] [m]
33 Nuun-individua.svg Nuun-finamezakomenca.svg /n/ [n]- n- [n] [n]
34 Haa-individua.svg Haa-finamezakomenca.svg /x/ [x]- h- [h] [h], [ɛ], [æ]
35 Waau-individua.svg Waau-fina.svg /u/ [u], [ʊ] wu, u-, -u, -u- [w], [uː] [v], [u], [o], [ow]
36 Yaa-individua.svg Yaa-finamezakomenca.svg ra ana ra ana [j], [ɪː], [eː] ra ana
36 Yaa-Persa-individua.svg Yaa-Persa-finamezakomenca.svg /i/ [i], [ɪ] yi, i-, -i, -i- [j], [ɪː], [eː] [j], [i], [e]

Panambang lan Sandhangan[besut | besut sumber]

Tulisan Pangucapan ing Basa Cina Hanyu Pinyin
1 HamzahFatHHah.svgutawa AlifFatHHah.svg [ɑ] a
2 FatHHahAlif-malplena.svg -[ɑ] -a
3 YaaFatHHahAlif.svg [iɑ] ya
4 KasrahAlif-malplena.svg -[iɑ] -ia
5 WaauFatHHah.svg [uɑ] wa
6 DammahWaauFatHHah-malplena.svg -[uɑ] -ua
7 ra ana [o] o
8 ra ana [uo]|[uɔ] wo
9 AinFatHHah.svg [ə]|[ɤ] e
10 Sukuun-malplena.svgutawa FatHHahAin-malplena.svg -[ə]|[ɤ] -e
11 WaauFatHHahAin.svg [uə] wo
12 DammahWaauFatHHahAin-malplena.svg -[uə] -uo
13 AinFatHHahRaa.svg [ɑɻ] er
14 Raa-malplena.svg -[ɻ] -r
15 ra ana [ɛ] ê
16 AlifKasrahYaaHamzah.svg [iɛ] ye
17 KasrahYaaHamzah-malplena.svg -[iɛ] -
18 YaaDammahWaauHamzah.svg [yɛ] yue
19 DammahWaauHamzah-malplena.svg -[yɛ] -üe, -ue
20 HamzahKasrah.svgutawa AlifKasrah.svg [i] yi
21 Kasrah-malplena.svg -[i] -i
22 Kasrah-malplena.svg -[Z-kunMalsuprapunkto.svg] -i
23 Kasrah-malplena.svg -[ɨ] -i
24 AlifFatHHahYaaSukuun.svg [aɪ] ai
25 FatHHahYaaSukuun-malplena.svg -[aɪ] -ai
26 ra ana [eɪ] ei
27 DammahWaauKasrah-malplena.svgutawa WaauHamzahKasrah-malplena.svg -[eɪ] -ei
28 WaauFatHHahYaaSukuun.svg [uaɪ] wai
29 DammahWaauFatHHahYaaSukuun-malplena.svg -[uaɪ] -uai
30 WaauKasrah.svg [ueɪ] wei
31 DammahWaauKasrah-malplena.svg -[ueɪ] -ui
32 HamzahDammah.svgutawa AlifDammah.svg [u] wu
33 Dammah-malplena.svgutawa DammahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[u] -u
34 AlifFatHHahWaauSukuun.svg [aʊ] ao
35 FatHHahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[aʊ] -ao
36 AinKasrahWaauSukuun.svg [əʊ]|[ɤʊ] ou
37 KasrahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[əʊ]|[ɤʊ] -ou
38 YaaFatHHahWaauSukuun.svg [iaʊ] yao
39 KasrahYaaFatHHahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[iaʊ] -iao
40 YaaKasrahWaauSukuun.svg [iəʊ]|[iɤʊ] you
41 KasrahYaaFatHHahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[iəʊ]|[iɤʊ] -iu
42 YaaDammahWaauSukuun.svg [y] yu
43 DammahWaauSukuun-malplena.svglan DammahWaauDammah-malplena.svg -[y] -ü, -u
44 HamzahFatHHatanAlif.svg [an] an
45 FatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[an] -an
46 AinKasratan.svgutawa AinDammatan.svgutawa HamzahDammatan.svg [ən] en
47 Kasratan-malplena.svgutawa Dammatan-malplena.svg -[ən] -en
48 HamzahKasratan.svgutawa AlifKasratan.svg [in] yin
49 Kasratan-malplena.svg -[in] -in
50 YaaDammatan.svg [yn] yun
51 Dammatan-malplena.svg -[yn] -un
52 YaaFatHHatanAlif.svg [iɛn] yan
53 KasrahYaaFatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[iɛn] -ian
54 WaauFatHHatanAlif.svg [uan]|[wan] wan
55 DammahWaauFatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[uan] -uan
56 YaaDammahWaauFatHHatanAlif.svg [yɛn] yuan
57 DammahWaauFatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[yɛn] -uan
58 WaauDammatan.svg [uən]|[wən] wen
59 Dammatan-malplena.svg -[uən] -un
60 HamzahSukuunAlif.svg [ɑŋ] ang
61 SukuunAlif-malplena.svg -[ɑŋ] -ang
62 Kasratan-malplena.svgutawa SukuunAin-malplena.svg -[ɤŋ] -eng
63 YaaSukuunKasratan.svg [iŋ] ying
64 SukuunKasratan-malplena.svg -[iŋ] -ing
66 SukuunWaau-malplena.svg -[ʊŋ] -ong
67 YaaSukuunKasrahWaau.svgutawa YaaSukuunWaau.svg [yʊŋ] yong
68 SukuunKasrahWaau-malplena.svgutawa SukuunWaau-malplena.svg -[yʊŋ] -iong
69 YaaSukuunAlif.svg [iɑŋ] yang
70 KasrahYaaSukuunAlif-malplena.svg -[iɑŋ] -iang
71 WaauSukuunAlif.svg [uɑŋ]|[wɑŋ] wang
72 DammahWaauSukuunAlif-malplena.svg -[uɑŋ] -uang
73 WaauSukuunAin.svg [uɤŋ]|[wɤŋ] weng

Tuladha[besut | besut sumber]

Pasal kapisan saka Deklarasi Hak Asasi Sadonya kang tinulis nganggo Xiao'erjing, Cina Prasaja lan Padatan, Hanyu Pinyin, Basa Inggris, Aksara Jawa, lan Basa Jawa:

  • Xiao'erjing:Xiaoerjing-Ekzemplafrazo.svg
  • Cina Prasaja: “人人生而自由,在尊严和权利上一律平等。他们赋有理性和良心,并应以兄弟关系的精神互相对待。”
  • Cina Padatan: 「人人生而自由,在尊嚴和權利上一律平等。他們賦有理性和良心,並應以兄弟關係的精神互相對待。」
  • Pinyin: "Rénrén shēng ér zìyóu, zài zūnyán hé quánlì shàng yílǜ píngděng. Tāmen fùyǒu lǐxìng hé liángxīn, bìng yīng yǐ xiōngdi guānxì de jīngshén hùxiāng duìdài."
  • Basa Inggeris: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
  • Aksara Jawa: ꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏ ꦭꦻꦂꦲꦏꦺ ꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ ꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏ ꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺ ꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꧏ ꦏꦁ ꦥꦝ꧉ ꦏꦧꦺꦃ ꦥꦶꦤꦫꦶꦁꦔꦤ꧀ꦲꦏꦭ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦏꦭ꧀ꦧꦸ ꦱꦂꦠ ꦏꦲꦗꦧ꧀ꦥꦱꦿꦮꦸꦁꦔꦤ꧀ꦲꦁꦒꦤꦺ ꦩꦼꦩꦶꦠꦿꦤ꧀ꦱꦶꦗꦶ ꦭꦤ꧀ꦱꦶꦗꦶꦤꦺ ꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ ꦗꦶꦮ ꦱꦸꦩꦢꦸꦭꦸꦂ꧉
  • Basa Jawa: "Sabên wong kalairaké kaṇṭhi mardika lan duwé martabat lan hak-hak kang paḍha. Kabeh pinaringan akal lan kalbu sarta kaajab pasrawungan anggoné memitran siji lan sijiné kaṇṭhi jiwa sumadulur."

Rujukan[besut | besut sumber]

  1. Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. k. 155. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Dijupuk 2010-06-28. 
  2. Howard Yuen Fung Choy (2008). Remapping the past: fictions of history in Deng's China, 1979–1997. BRILL. k. 92. ISBN 90-04-16704-8. Dijupuk 2010-11-30. 
  3. Daftar-i Muṭālaʻāt-i Siyāsī va Bayn al-Milalī (Iran) (2000). The Iranian journal of international affairs, Volume 12. Institute for Political and International Studies. k. 52. Dijupuk 2010-11-30. 
  4. Centre for the Study of Religion and Communism (2003). Religion in communist lands, Volume 31. Centre for the Study of Religion and Communism. k. 13. Dijupuk 2010-11-30. 
  5. Tōkyō Daigaku. Tōyō Bunka Kenkyūjo (2006). International journal of Asian studies, Volumes 3–5. Cambridge University Press. k. 141. Dijupuk 2010-11-30. 
  6. Geoffrey Roper (1994). World survey of Islamic manuscripts. 4. (Supplement ; including indexes of languages, names and titles of collections of volumes I-IV), Volumes 1–4. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation. k. 96. ISBN 1-873992-11-4. Dijupuk 2010-11-30. 
  7. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. k. 51. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Dijupuk 2010-11-28. 
  8. Geoffrey Roper (1994). World survey of Islamic manuscripts. 4. (Supplement ; including indexes of languages, names and titles of collections of volumes I-IV), Volumes 1–4. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation. k. 71. ISBN 1-873992-11-4. Dijupuk 2010-11-28. 
  • O.I. Zavyalova. Sino-Islamic language contacts along the Great Silk Road: Chinese texts written in Arabic Script // Chinese Studies (漢學研究). Taipei: 1999. № 1.
  • A. Forke. Ein islamisches Tractat aus Turkistan // T’oung pao. Vol. VIII. 1907.
  • Xiaojing Qur'an (《小經古蘭》), Dongxiang County, Lingxia autonomous prefecture, Gansu, PRC, 1987.
  • Huijiao Bizun (Xiaojing) (《回教必遵(小經)》), Islam Book Publishers, Xi'an, Shaanxi, PRC, 1993, 154 pp, photocopied edition.
  • Muhammad Musa Abdulihakim. Islamic faith Q&A (《伊斯兰信仰问答》) 2nd ed. Beiguan Street Mosque, Xining, Qinghai, PRC, appendix contains a Xiao'erjing–Pinyin–Arabic comparison chart.
  • Feng Zenglie. Beginning Dissertation on Xiao'erjing: Introducing a phonetic writing system of the Arabic script adopted for Chinese in The Arab World (《阿拉伯世界》) Issue #1. 1982.
  • Chen Yuanlong. The Xiaojing writing system of the Dongxiang ethnicity in China's Dongxiang ethnicity (《中国东乡族》). People's Publishing House of Gansu. 1999.

Pranala jawi[besut | besut sumber]