Dhaptar pamenang bebungah Nobel miturut bidang

Saka Wikipédia, Bauwarna Mardika abasa Jawa / Saking Wikipédia, Bauwarna Mardika abasa Jawi
Langsung menyang: pandhu arah, pados

Daftar pamenang bebungah Nobel iki diurut miturut bidang kategori lan taun panganugerahan. Pamenang Bebungah Nobel iku èlmuwan, penulis lan juru damai sing wis dianugerahi bebungah ing bidang tinamtu, lan sing dikenal sacara klompok minangka pamenang bebungah Nobel utawa pamenang Nobel.

Fisika[sunting | sunting sumber]

2009 Charles K. Kao, Willard Boyle, dan George E. Smith

2008 Nambu Yoichiro, Kobayashi Makoto, Masukawa Toshihide

2007 Albert Fert, Peter Grünberg

2006 John C. Mather, George F. Smoot

2005 Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, Theodor W. Hänsch

2004 David J. Gross, H. David Politzer, Frank Wilczek

2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, Anthony J. Leggett

2002 Raymond Davis, Jr., Masatoshi Koshiba, Riccardo Giacconi

2001 Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, Carl E. Wieman

2000 Zhores I. Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, Jack S. Kilby

1999 Gerardus 't Hooft, Martinus J.G. Veltman

1998 Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer, Daniel C. Tsui

1997 Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, William D. Phillips

1996 David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

1995 Martin L. Perl, Frederick Reines

1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse, Clifford G. Shull

1993 Russell A. Hulse, Joseph H. Taylor, Jr.

1992 Georges Charpak

1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

1990 Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall, Richard E. Taylor

1989 Norman F. Ramsey, Hans G. Dehmelt, Wolfgang Paul

1988 Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, Jack Steinberger

1987 J. Georg Bednorz, K. Alex Müller

1986 Ernst Ruska, Gerd Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer

1985 Klaus von Klitzing

1984 Carlo Rubbia, Simon van der Meer

1983 Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, William A. Fowler

1982 Kenneth G. Wilson

1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen, Arthur L. Schawlow, Kai M. Siegbahn

1980 James Cronin, Val Fitch

1979 Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinberg

1978 Pyotr Kapitsa, Arno Penzias, Robert Woodrow Wilson

1977 Philip W. Anderson, Sir Nevill F. Mott, John H. van Vleck

1976 Burton Richter, Samuel C.C. Ting

1975 Aage N. Bohr, Ben R. Mottelson, James Rainwater

1974 Martin Ryle, Antony Hewish

1973 Leo Esaki, Ivar Giaever, Brian D. Josephson

1972 John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper, Robert Schrieffer

1971 Dennis Gabor

1970 Hannes Alfvén, Louis Néel

1969 Murray Gell-Mann

1968 Luis Alvarez

1967 Hans Bethe

1966 Alfred Kastler

1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, Richard P. Feynman

1964 Charles H. Townes, Nicolay G. Basov, Aleksandr M. Prokhorov

1963 Eugene Wigner, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, J. Hans D. Jensen

1962 Lev Landau

1961 Robert Hofstadter, Rudolf Mössbauer

1960 Donald A. Glaser

1959 Emilio Segrè, Owen Chamberlain

1958 Pavel A. Cherenkov, Il´ja M. Frank, Igor Y. Tamm

1957 Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee

1956 William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain

1955 Willis E. Lamb, Polykarp Kusch

1954 Max Born, Walther Bothe

1953 Frits Zernike

1952 Felix Bloch, E. M. Purcell

1951 John Douglas Cockcroft, Ernest T.S. Walton

1950 Cecil Powell

1949 Hideki Yukawa

1948 Patrick M.S. Blackett

1947 Edward V. Appleton

1946 Percy W. Bridgman

1945 Wolfgang Pauli

1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi

1943 Otto Stern

1939 Ernest Lawrence

1938 Enrico Fermi

1937 Clinton Davisson, George Paget Thomson

1936 Victor F. Hess, Carl D. Anderson

1935 James Chadwick

1933 Erwin Schrödinger, Paul A.M. Dirac

1932 Werner Heisenberg

1930 Venkata Raman

1929 Louis de Broglie

1928 Owen Willans Richardson

1927 Arthur H. Compton, C.T.R. Wilson

1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin

1925 James Franck, Gustav Hertz

1924 Karl Manne Siegbahn

1923 Robert A. Millikan

1922 Niels Bohr

1921 Albert Einstein

1920 Charles Edouard Guillaume

1919 Johannes Stark

1918 Max Planck

1917 Charles Glover Barkla

1915 William Lawrence Bragg, W.H. Bragg

1914 Max von Laue

1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

1912 Nils Gustaf Dalén

1911 Wilhelm Wien

1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals

1909 Guglielmo Marconi, Ferdinand Braun

1908 Gabriel Lippmann

1907 Albert A. Michelson

1906 J.J. Thomson

1905 Philipp Lenard

1904 John William Strutt Rayleigh

1903 Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie, Maria Skłodowska-Curie

1902 Hendrik A. Lorentz, Pieter Zeeman

1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

Kimia[sunting | sunting sumber]

2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz, dan Ada E. Yonath

2008 Shimomura Osamu, Martin Chalfie, Roger Y. Tsien
2007 Gerhard Ertl
2006 Roger D. Kornberg
2005 Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock, Yves Chauvin
2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose
2003 Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon
2002 John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka, Kurt Wüthrich
2001 William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless
2000 Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa
1999 Ahmed Zewail
1998 Walter Kohn, John Pople
1997 Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold Kroto, Richard E. Smalley
1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland
1994 George A. Olah
1993 Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus
1991 Richard R. Ernst
1990 Elias James Corey
1989 Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech
1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel
1987 Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John C. Polanyi
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle
1984 Bruce Merrifield
1983 Henry Taube
1982 Aaron Klug
1981 Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann
1980 Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger
1979 Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig
1978 Peter Mitchell
1977 Ilya Prigogine
1976 William N. Lipscomb
1975 John Warcup Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog
1974 Paul J. Flory
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson
1972 Christian Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William H. Stein
1971 Gerhard Herzberg
1970 Luis Leloir
1969 Derek Barton, Odd Hassel
1968 Lars Onsager
1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald G.W. Norrish, George Porter
1966 Robert S. Mulliken
1965 Robert B. Woodward
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
1963 Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta
1962 Max F. Perutz, John C. Kendrew
1961 Melvin Calvin
1960 Willard F. Libby
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky
1958 Frederick Sanger
1957 Alexander Todd
1956 Sir Cyril Hinshelwood, Nikolay Semenov
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud
1954 Linus Pauling
1953 Hermann Staudinger
1952 Archer Martin, Richard L.M. Synge
1951 Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg
1950 Otto Diels, Kurt Alder
1949 William F. Giauque
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
1947 Sir Robert Robinson
1946 James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop, Wendell M. Stanley
1945 Artturi Virtanen
1944 Otto Hahn
1943 George de Hevesy
1939 Adolf Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka
1938 Richard Kuhn
1937 Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer
1936 Peter Debye
1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie
1934 Harold C. Urey
1932 Irving Langmuir
1931 Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius
1930 Hans Fischer
1929 Arthur Harden, Hans von Euler-Chelpin
1928 Adolf Windaus
1927 Heinrich Wieland
1926 The Svedberg
1925 Richard Zsigmondy
1923 Fritz Pregl
1922 Francis W. Aston
1921 Frederick Soddy
1920 Walther Nernst
1918 Fritz Haber
1915 Richard Willstätter
1914 Theodore William Richards
1913 Alfred Werner
1912 Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier
1911 Maria Skłodowska-Curie
1910 Otto Wallach
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald
1908 Ernest Rutherford
1907 Eduard Buchner
1906 Henri Moissan
1905 Adolf von Baeyer
1904 Sir William Ramsay
1903 Svante Arrhenius
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer
1901 Jacobus H. van 't Hoff

Fisiologi atau Kedhokteran[sunting | sunting sumber]

2009 Carol W. Greider, Elizabeth Blackburn, Jack W. Szostak
2008 Harald zur Hausen, Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier
2007 Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, Oliver Smithies
2006 Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello
2005 Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren
2004 Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck
2003 Paul C. Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield
2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston
2001 Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse
2000 Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel
1999 Günter Blobel
1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner
1996 Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel
1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus
1994 Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell
1993 Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp
1992 Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs
1991 Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann
1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas
1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus
1988 James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings
1987 Susumu Tonegawa
1986 Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini
1985 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein
1984 Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein
1983 Barbara McClintock
1982 Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane
1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
1980 Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell
1979 Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield
1978 Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith
1977 Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg, D. Carleton Gajdusek
1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard M. Temin
1974 Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade
1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen
1972 Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod
1969 Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador E. Luria
1968 Robert W. Holley, H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
1967 Ragnar Granit, Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald
1966 Peyton Rous, Charles B. Huggins
1965 François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod
1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen
1963 Sir John Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley
1962 Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins
1961 Georg von Békésy
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Medawar
1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg
1958 George Beadle, Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg
1957 Daniel Bovet
1956 André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards
1955 Hugo Theorell
1954 John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins
1953 Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann
1952 Selman A. Waksman
1951 Max Theiler
1950 Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip S. Hench
1949 Walter Hess, António Egas Moniz
1948 Paul Müller
1947 Carl Cori, Gerty Cori, Bernardo Houssay
1946 Hermann J. Muller
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S. Gasser
1943 Henrik Dam, Edward A. Doisy
1939 Gerhard Domagk
1938 Corneille Heymans
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi
1936 Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi
1935 Hans Spemann
1934 George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
1933 Thomas H. Morgan
1932 Sir Charles Sherrington, Edgar Adrian
1931 Otto Warburg
1930 Karl Landsteiner
1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Hopkins
1928 Charles Nicolle
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg
1926 Johannes Fibiger
1924 Willem Einthoven
1923 Frederick G. Banting, John James Richard Macleod
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill, Otto Meyerhof
1920 August Krogh
1919 Jules Bordet
1914 Robert Bárány
1913 Charles R. Richet
1912 Alexis Carrel
1911 Allvar Gullstrand
1910 Albrecht Kossel
1909 Theodor Kocher
1908 Ilya Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich
1907 Alphonse Laveran
1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1905 Robert Koch
1904 Ivan Pavlov
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen
1902 Ronald Ross
1901 Emil von Behring

Sastra[sunting | sunting sumber]

2009 Herta Müller
2008 Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio
2007 Doris Lessing
2006 Orhan Pamuk
2005 Harold Pinter
2004 Elfriede Jelinek
2003 J.M. Coetzee
2002 Imre Kertész
2001 V.S. Naipaul
2000 Gao Xingjian
1999 Günter Grass
1998 José Saramago
1997 Dario Fo
1996 Wislawa Szymborska
1995 Seamus Heaney
1994 Kenzaburo Oe
1993 Toni Morrison
1992 Derek Walcott
1991 Nadine Gordimer
1990 Octavio Paz
1989 Camilo José Cela
1988 Naguib Mahfouz
1987 Joseph Brodsky
1986 Wole Soyinka
1985 Claude Simon
1984 Jaroslav Seifert
1983 William Golding
1982 Gabriel García Márquez
1981 Elias Canetti
1980 Czeslaw Milosz
1979 Odysseus Elytis
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer
1977 Vicente Aleixandre
1976 Saul Bellow
1975 Eugenio Montale
1974 Eyvind Johnson, Harry Martinson
1973 Patrick Victor Martindale White
1972 Heinrich Böll
1971 Pablo Neruda
1970 Alexander Solzhenitsyn
1969 Samuel Beckett
1968 Yasunari Kawabata
1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias
1966 Samuel Agnon, Nelly Sachs
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
1963 Giorgos Seferis
1962 John Steinbeck
1961 Ivo Andric
1960 Saint-John Perse
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo
1958 Boris Pasternak
1957 Albert Camus
1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez
1955 Halldór Laxness
1954 Ernest Hemingway
1953 Winston Churchill
1952 François Mauriac
1951 Pär Lagerkvist
1950 Bertrand Russell
1949 William Faulkner
1948 T.S. Eliot
1947 André Gide
1946 Hermann Hesse
1945 Gabriela Mistral
1944 Johannes V. Jensen
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää
1938 Pearl Buck
1937 Roger Martin du Gard
1936 Eugene O'Neill
1934 Luigi Pirandello
1933 Ivan Bunin
1932 John Galsworthy
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1930 Sinclair Lewis
1929 Thomas Mann
1928 Sigrid Undset
1927 Henri Bergson
1926 Grazia Deledda
1925 George Bernard Shaw
1924 Wladyslaw Reymont
1923 William Butler Yeats
1922 Jacinto Benavente
1921 Anatole France
1920 Knut Hamsun
1919 Carl Spitteler
1917 Karl Gjellerup, Henrik Pontoppidan
1916 Verner von Heidenstam
1915 Romain Rolland
1913 Rabindranath Tagore
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann
1911 Maurice Maeterlinck
1910 Paul Heyse
1909 Selma Lagerlöf
1908 Rudolf Eucken
1907 Rudyard Kipling
1906 Giosuè Carducci
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz
1904 Frédéric Mistral, José Echegaray
1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
1902 Theodor Mommsen
1901 Sully Prudhomme

Perdamaian[sunting | sunting sumber]

2009 Barack Obama
2008 Martti Ahtisaari
2007 Al Gore, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
2006 Muhammad Yunus dan Grameen Bank
2005 Mohamed ElBaradei dan IAEA
2004 Wangari Maathai
2003 Shirin Ebadi
2002 Jimmy Carter
2001 PBB, Kofi Annan
2000 Kim Dae-jung
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières
1998 John Hume, David Trimble
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Jody Williams
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, José Ramos-Horta
1995 Joseph Rotblat, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
1994 Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin
1993 Nelson Mandela, F.W. de Klerk
1992 Rigoberta Menchú Tum
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev
1989 Dalai Lama XIV
1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
1987 Óscar Arias Sánchez
1986 Elie Wiesel
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
1984 Desmond Tutu
1983 Lech Walesa
1982 Alva Myrdal, Alfonso García Robles
1981 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
1979 Bunda Teresa
1978 Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin
1977 Amnesty International
1976 Betty Williams, Mairead Corrigan
1975 Andrei Sakharov
1974 Seán MacBride, Eisaku Sato
1973 Henry Kissinger, Le Duc Tho
1971 Willy Brandt
1970 Norman Borlaug
1969 International Labour Organization
1968 René Cassin
1965 United Nations Children's Fund
1964 Martin Luther King
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies
1962 Linus Pauling
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld
1960 Albert Lutuli
1959 Philip Noel-Baker
1958 Georges Pire
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson
1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1953 George C. Marshall
1952 Albert Schweitzer
1951 Léon Jouhaux
1950 Ralph Bunche
1949 Lord Boyd Orr
1947 Friends Service Council, American Friends Service Committee
1946 Emily Greene Balch, John R. Mott
1945 Cordell Hull
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross
1938 Kantor Internasional Nansen untuk Pengungsi
1937 Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1935 Carl von Ossietzky
1934 Arthur Henderson
1933 Sir Norman Angell
1931 Jane Addams, Nicholas Murray Butler
1930 Nathan Söderblom
1929 Frank B. Kellogg
1927 Ferdinand Buisson, Ludwig Quidde
1926 Aristide Briand, Gustav Stresemann
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes
1922 Fridtjof Nansen
1921 Hjalmar Branting, Christian Lous Lange
1920 Léon Bourgeois
1919 Woodrow Wilson
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross
1913 Henri La Fontaine
1912 Elihu Root
1911 Tobias Asser, Alfred Fried
1910 Biro Perdamaian Internasional Abadi
1909 Auguste Beernaert, Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Fredrik Bajer
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Louis Renault
1906 Theodore Roosevelt
1905 Bertha von Suttner
1904 Lembaga Hukum Internasional
1903 Randal Cremer
1902 Élie Ducommun, Albert Gobat
1901 Henry Dunant, Frédéric Passy

Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

2009 Elinor Ostrom lan Oliver E. Williamson

2008 Paul Krugman

2007 Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin, Roger B. Myerson

2006 Edmund S. Phelps

2005 Robert J. Aumann, Thomas C. Schelling

2004 Finn E. Kydland, Edward C. Prescott

2003 Robert F. Engle III, Clive W. J. Granger

2002 Daniel Kahneman, Vernon L. Smith

2001 George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, Joseph E. Stiglitz

2000 James J. Heckman, Daniel L. McFadden

1999 Robert A. Mundell

1998 Amartya Sen

1997 Robert C. Merton, Myron S. Scholes

1996 James A. Mirrlees, William Vickrey

1995 Robert E. Lucas Jr.

1994 John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr., Reinhard Selten

1993 Robert W. Fogel, Douglass C. North

1992 Gary S. Becker

1991 Ronald H. Coase

1990 Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller, William F. Sharpe

1989 Trygve Haavelmo

1988 Maurice Allais

1987 Robert M. Solow

1986 James M. Buchanan Jr.

1985 Franco Modigliani

1984 John Richard Nicholas Stone

1983 Gerard Debreu

1982 George J. Stigler

1981 James Tobin

1980 Lawrence R. Klein

1979 Theodore W. Schultz, Sir Arthur Lewis

1978 Herbert A. Simon

1977 Bertil Ohlin, James E. Meade

1976 Milton Friedman

1975 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich, Tjalling C. Koopmans

1974 Gunnar Myrdal, Friedrich August von Hayek

1973 Wassily Leontief

1972 John Richard Hicks, Kenneth J. Arrow

1971 Simon Kuznets

1970 Paul A. Samuelson

1969 Ragnar Frisch, Jan Tinbergen

Deleng uga[sunting | sunting sumber]