Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville

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Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville

Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville (lair ing Paris, Perancis, 25 April 1817 – tilar donya ing Paris, Perancis, 26 April 1879 kanthi umur62 taun) inggih punika satunggaling pencétak lan pedagan buku asal Perancis. Piyambakipun manggihaken alat perekam swara kapisanan ing donya, inggih punika phonautogram, ingkang dipunpatènaken tanggal 25 Maret 1857, kanthi kode patèn #17,897/31,470.[1][2][3]

Phonautogram[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wiwit taun 1854 piyambakipun remen kaliyan mékanis nyerat swara. Nalika nindakaken cèk seratan wonten ing sapérangan ukiran buku tèks fisik piyambakipun manggihaken sapérangan gambar anatomi pamirengan. Piyambakipun pados alat ingkang saged niru cara kerja pamirengan, migunakaken mèmbran élastis minangka gendhang talingan, sapérangan pengungkit minangka tulang talingan, ingkang badhé ngébahaken péna ingkang badhé nyerat swara wonten ing permukaan kertas, kayu utawi gelas ingkang dipunsukani jelaga. Wonten ing tanggal 26 Januari, 1857 piyambakipun ngirim desainipun wonten ing sawijining amplop dhateng Akademi Perancis. [4] Wonten ing tanggal 25 Maret 1857, piyambakipun pikantuk kode patèn Perancis #17,897/31,470 kanggé phonautogram.

Ilustrasi kamus untuk phonautogram. Laras nya terbuat dari gipsum.

Phonautogram migunakaken sawijining trompèt kanggé nangkep swara, ingkang nyénggol diafragma lan ngébahaken sikat kaku ingkang nyerataken wonten ing kertas ingkang dipuncemengaken kanthi jelaga, wonten ing sawijining silinder ingkang dipunputer kanthi tangan. Scott damel sapérangan phonautogram sesarengan kaliyan tukang damel instrumèn akustik ingkang nama Rudolph Koenig. Béda kaliyan fonograf damelanipun Edison taun 1877, phonautogram namung saged nyerataken swara lan boten muter rekaman. Alat punika namung dipunginakaken kanggé panalitè ilmiah tumrap gelombang suara.

Scott de Martinville saged nyadé sapérangan phonautogram kanggé laboratorium ilmiah kanggé panalitèn tumrap swara. Alat punika migunani wonten ing panalitèn swara vokal lan dipunginakaken déning Franciscus Donders, Heinrich Schneebeli lan Rene Marage.[4] Ananging piyambakipun boten ngasilaken arta saking panemuan kasebut lan nelasaken gesangaipun kanthi nyambut damel minangkapedagan buku ing 9 Rue Vivienne ing Paris.

Panemuan rekaman Au Clair de la Lune[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wonten ing taun 2008, New York Times nglapuraken panemuan sapérangan phonautogram saking tanggal 9 April 1860.[5] Pangumuman saking panemuan sareng kaliyan pangumuman bilih rekaman visual saded dipunmainaken — "ngéwahi corétan ing kertas dados swara — déning ilmuan ing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ing Berkeley, California."[5] Phonautogram inggih punika salah satunggaling gambaran Leon Scott ingkang boten kémutan; kertas punika dipunwaos lan dipunprosés déning program komputer canggih ingkang dipundamel déning Library of Congress.

Swara kasebut inggih punik swara nyanyian kanthi wekdal 10 detik, awalipun dipunkira minangka putri saking sang penemu, sadèrèng pungksan dipunmangertosi rekaman kasebut dipunmainaken kecepeten lan minangka swaranipun piyambak, [6] nyanyikaken lagu "Au Clair de la Lune". Rekaman phonautogram punika dipunanggep minangka rekaman swara manungsa lan musik paling sepuh ing donya, tinimbang rekaman musik Handel "Israel in Egypt" wonten ing sawijining fonograf Edison, ingkang dipundamel taun 1888.[7]

Phonautogram Scott de Martinville ingkang ngemu naskah drama Aminta damlean Torquato Tasso ugi sampun kapanggihaken. Dipunrekam sakitar taun 1860, kemungkinan sasampuning rekamam Au Clair de la Lune, phonautogram punika minangka rekaman swara manungsa ingkang paling sepuh kanthi dipunmicarakaken.[8]. Rekaman ingkang langkung sepuh saking taun 1857 ugi ngemu swara Scott, ananging boten dipunkenali amaegi swara ingkang boten aturan.

Cathetan Suku[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Schoenherr, Steven E.. "Leon Scott and the Phonautograph.". diaksès tanggal 2008-03-27. "Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville was born in France in 1817." 
  2. ^ "Oldest recorded voices sing again.", BBC, 28 March 2008. diaksès tanggal 2008-03-29. "An "ethereal" 10 second clip of a woman singing a French folk song has been played for the first time in 150 years. The recording of "Au Clair de la Lune", recorded in 1860, is thought to be the oldest known recorded human voice." 
  3. ^ "Sound Recording Predates Edison Phonograph", National Public Radio. diaksès tanggal 2008-04-05. "He invented a device called the phonautograph, and, on 9 April 1860, recorded someone singing the words, 'Au clair de la lune, Pierrot repondit Cithakan:Sic.' But he never had any intention of playing it back. He just wanted to study the pattern the sound waves made on a sheet of paper blackened by the smoke of an oil lamp." 
  4. ^ a b Hankins, Thomas L.; Robert J. Silverman (1995). Instruments and the Imagination. Princeton University Press. pp. 133 to 135. ISBN 0691005494. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=O9e_7E22caAC&pg=PA263&lpg=PA263&dq=%22%C3%A9douard+l%C3%A9on%22+scott+de+martinville&source=web&ots=q2EaTVN2y2&sig=4xikiGBQZCMUFimgIGcp3SVstU8&hl=en#PPA131,M1.
  5. ^ a b "Researchers Play Tune Recorded Before Edison.", New York Times. diaksès tanggal 2013-03-22. "The audio excavation could give a new primacy to the phonautograph, once considered a curio, and its inventor, Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, a Parisian typesetter and tinkerer who went to his grave convinced that credit for his breakthroughs had been improperly bestowed on Edison." 
  6. ^ Earliest Known Sound Recordings Revealed
  7. ^ The 1888 Crystal Palace recordings
  8. ^ Cowen, Ron. "Earliest Known Sound Recordings Revealed Researchers unveil imprints made 20 years before Edison invented phonograph", Science News, U.S.News & World Report, June 1, 2009. diaksès tanggal 2013-03-22. 

Pranala Njaba[sunting | sunting sumber]